The objective of the study was to see whether a teacher-coach exhibits different types of leadership behavior when s/he teaches a PE class and coaches a group of athletes. The participants in this study were 17–18 year old second-year preuniversity students from two local junior colleges in Singapore. A total of 159 students of mixed gender participated, including 80 PE students and 79 student-athletes from floorball, canoeing, and shooting teams. All of the 159 students were taught or coached by three (one male and two female) PE teachers, who performed the dual roles of a PE teacher-coach in the school. The data collection instrument used in this study was the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) measuring five leadership behaviors. A multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that democratic decision making accounted for most of the differences between the PE students’ and student-athletes’ perceived leadership behavior of their teacher-coaches; the student-athletes perceived their coaches to provide training and instruction more than did the PE students. In addition to training and instruction, the student-athletes perceived more positive feedback given to them than did the PE students. For decision making style, students in PE class perceived more democratic decision making than athletes in school teams. The social support subscale did not show statistically significant group difference.
Hyungil Harry Kwon, Do young Pyun and May Kim
Ben Schram, Wayne Hing and Mike Climstein
Stand-up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing sport and recreational activity for which only anecdotal evidence exists on its proposed health, fitness, and injury-rehabilitation benefits. Participants: 10 internationally and nationally ranked elite SUP athletes.
Participants were assessed for their maximal aerobic power on an ergometer in a laboratory and compared with other water-based athletes. Field-based assessments were subsequently performed using a portable gas-analysis system, and a correlation between the 2 measures was performed.
Maximal aerobic power (relative) was significantly higher (P = .037) when measured in the field with a portable gas-analysis system (45.48 ± 6.96 mL · kg−1 · min−1) than with laboratory-based metabolic-cart measurements (43.20 ± 6.67 mL · kg−1 · min−1). There was a strong, positive correlation (r = .907) between laboratory and field maximal aerobic power results. Significantly higher (P = .000) measures of SUP paddling speed were found in the field than with the laboratory ergometer (+42.39%). There were no significant differences in maximal heart rate between the laboratory and field settings (P = .576).
The results demonstrate the maximal aerobic power representative of internationally and nationally ranked SUP athletes and show that SUP athletes can be assessed for maximal aerobic power in the laboratory with high correlation to field-based measures. The field-based portable gas-analysis unit has a tendency to consistently measure higher oxygen consumption. Elite SUP athletes display aerobic power outputs similar to those of other upper-limb-dominant elite water-based athletes (surfing, dragon-boat racing, and canoeing).
Pierre-Olaf Schut and Antoine Marsac
, relate, rappelle des premières dans différentes activités de nature. Pour donner plus de portée à notre propos, nous veillerons à multiplier les appuis dans des pratiques différentes (canoë, alpinisme, spéléologie. . .) et à des moments différents pendant les deux derniers siècles. Les généralités qui en
Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg
distance also appears in some upper-body-dominant modes such as canoeing and double-poling cross-country skiing, whereas the sex differences in kayaking are relatively constant at 12% to 13%. In the sprint events of these 2 sports (ie, 200-m kayaking and canoeing), the differences are 19% and 23
Johanna S. Rosén, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Keith Tolfrey, Anton Arndt and Anna Bjerkefors
Para Va'a is a canoeing sport performed in a Polynesian outrigger canoe, propelled by a single-blade paddle on flat or open water, by athletes with physical impairments. Para Va'a makes its debut as a Paralympic sport at the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games after the International Paralympic Committee
Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta and Mikael Fogelholm
–20 years old. The three main sports among the participants were cross-country skiing ( n = 53 coaches and n = 111 athletes), orienteering ( n = 13 and n = 110), and biathlon ( n = 6 and n = 38). Other sports were endurance running and racewalking, triathlon, cycling, swimming, rowing, and canoeing
Milena M. Parent, Michael L. Naraine and Russell Hoye
, it’s not as highly contested as running for public office or anything like that, but there is a level of performance expected from our volunteers.” (Canoe Kayak Canada representative) “The Executive Board or Congress may, from time to time, establish committees (standing and [ad hoc]), and
Julian North, David Piggott, Alexandra Rankin-Wright and Michael Ashford
in national surveys (e.g., MORI, 2004 ). There were 47 sports represented in the sample—the top 10 were football (12%), swimming (8%), bowls (7%), rowing (5%), netball (5%), athletics (5%), cricket (5%), gymnastics (5%), rugby union (5%), canoeing (3%), and golf (3%). Compared with other U
Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff and Ronald F. Zernicke
canoeing, crew, riding, swimming, and sailing All activities except archery, canoeing, riding, shuffle-board, weight lifting Badminton, baseball/softball, basketball, dance, football, handball, hockey, lacrosse, racquetball, speedball, speedaway, squash, tennis, and track and field Basketball, dance
Geoffrey M. Hudson and Kyle Sprow
limit the opportunity for many to participate in structured exercise programs, they have also increased potential opportunities for leisure-time physical activity such as family walks, hiking, canoeing, gardening, yard maintenance, and other outdoor activities. Traditional aerobic endurance activities