calculation. Therefore, the purpose of this commentary is to add to the knowledge base on differences between coupled/uncoupled ATL, CTL, and ACWR across internal and external TL measures using a case study of international-level athletes in both open- and closed-skill sports. Methods Participants Two groups
Joseph O.C. Coyne, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton and G. Gregory Haff
Some of the nutritional concerns of female athletes are highlighted in this case study of a 20-year-old woman who wants to lose 16% of her body weight to qualify for the position of coxswain on a national crew team. These concerns include adequacy of vitamin, mineral, protein, and carbohydrate intake as well as amenorrhea and pathogenic eating behaviors.
James P. Morton, Colin Robertson, Laura Sutton and Don P. M
Professional boxing is a combat sport categorized into a series of weight classes. Given the sport’s underpinning culture, boxers’ typical approach to “making weight” is usually via severe acute and/or chronic energy restriction and dehydration. Such practices have implications for physical performance and also carry health risks. This article provides a case-study account outlining a more structured and gradual approach to helping a professional male boxer make weight for the 59-kg superfeatherweight division. Over a 12-week period, the client athlete adhered to a daily diet approximately equivalent to his resting metabolic rate (6–7 MJ; 40% carbohydrate, 38% protein, 22% fat). Average body-mass loss was 0.9 ± 0.4 kg/wk, equating to a total loss of 9.4 kg. This weight loss resulted in a decrease in percent body fat from 12.1% to 7.0%. In the 30 hr between weigh-in and competition, the client consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (12 g/kg body mass) supported by appropriate hydration strategies and subsequently entered the ring at a fighting weight of 63.2 kg. This nutritional strategy represented a major change in the client’s habitual weight-making practices and did not rely on any form of intended dehydration during the training period or before weighing in. The intervention demonstrates that a more gradual approach to making weight in professional boxing can be successfully achieved via a combination of restricted energy intake and increased energy expenditure, providing there is willingness on the part of the athlete and coaches involved to adopt novel practices.
Nicole G. Dubuc, Robert J. Schinke, Mark A. Eys, Randy Battochio and Leonard Zaichkowsky
Within the current study, the process of adolescent burnout is considered in relation to perceived contributors, symptoms, consequences, and subsequently, effective and ineffective coping strategies. Through case studies, the researchers sought the burnout experiences of three competitive female gymnasts. Participants were selected based on scores obtained from Raedeke and Smith’s (2001) Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the process, athlete data were considered in tandem with interviews from at least one parent and one coach. Transcribed data were segmented into meaning units, coded into a hierarchy of themes and verified by each respondent. Despite common trends among the participants, differences were also found in relation to symptoms, contributors, and the progression of the condition. Implications are provided for the athlete/parent/coach triad and also for sport psychologists.
Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Matt Konopinski, David Rydings, Jordan Milsom, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton
decline in functional strength ( White et al., 1984 ), a reduction in (local) metabolic rate ( Haruna et al., 1994 ), a decline in insulin sensitivity, and increased local fat deposition ( Richter et al., 1989 ). In a previous case study by our group, we documented the rehabilitation of an English Premier
Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton
weight, the aim of the present case study was to quantify the physiological and metabolic impact of extreme weight cutting. We monitored an elite male MMA athlete during an 8-week training camp and obtained regular assessments of body composition (according to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA
& Laursen, 2017 ). The aim of this case study was to report on the performance outcomes and subjective assessments of long-term (32 weeks) LCHF diet in a world-class, lacto-ovo vegetarian long-distance triathlete who had been suffering from GI problems in Ironman competition (e.g., malabsorption of
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A. Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Weverton L. Santos, Ronaldo Kobal and Michael McGuigan
Paralympic athletes and the force–velocity relationship. This case study is in line with previous recommendations highlighting the emergent necessity to produce useful and practical knowledge, in an attempt to bridge the wide gap that exists between sport science and sport practice. 13 Practical Applications
Wesley J. Wilson and K. Andrew R. Richards
investigation ( Richards & Wilson, 2019 ) examined preservice teachers’ acculturation and reasons for enrolling in APETE. The present study was designed as a descriptive case study with the overarching purpose of developing an “in-depth understanding of the situation and its meaning for those involved
Lindy M. Rossow, David H. Fukuda, Christopher A. Fahs, Jeremy P. Loenneke and Jeffrey R. Stout
Bodybuilding is a sport in which competitors are judged on muscular appearance. This case study tracked a drug-free male bodybuilder (age 26–27 y) for the 6 mo before and after a competition.
The aim of this study was to provide the most comprehensive physiological profile of bodybuilding competition preparation and recovery ever compiled.
Cardiovascular parameters, body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, critical power, mood state, resting energy expenditure, and hormonal and other blood parameters were evaluated.
Heart rate decreased from 53 to 27 beats/min during preparation and increased to 46 beats/min within 1 mo after competition. Brachial blood pressure dropped from 132/69 to 104/56 mmHg during preparation and returned to 116/64 mmHg at 6 mo after competition. Percent body fat declined from 14.8% to 4.5% during preparation and returned to 14.6% during recovery. Strength decreased during preparation and did not fully recover during 6 months of recovery. Testosterone declined from 9.22 to 2.27 ng/mL during preparation and returned back to the baseline level, 9.91 ng/mL, after competition. Total mood disturbance increased from 6 to 43 units during preparation and recovered to 4 units 6 mo after competition.
This case study provides a thorough documentation of the physiological changes that occurred during natural bodybuilding competition and recovery.