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Semyon Slobounov, Tao Wu and Mark Hallett

Human upright posture is a product of a complex dynamic system that relies on integration of input from multimodal sensory sources. Extensive research has explored the role of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems in the control of upright posture. However, the role of higher cognitive function in a participant’s assessment of postural stability has been less studied. In previous research, we showed specific neural activation patterns in EEG associated with recognition of unstable postures in young healthy participants. Similar EEG patterns have been recently observed in regulation of posture equilibrium in dynamic stances. This article evaluates participants’ postural stability in dynamic stances and neural activation patterns underlying visual recognition of unstable postures using event-related functional MRI (fMRI). Our results show that the “stable” participants were successful in recognition of unstable postures of a computer-animated body model and experienced egocentric motion. Successful recognition of unstable postures in these participants induces activation of distinct areas of the brain including bilateral parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral cerebellum. In addition, significant activation is observed in basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen) but only during perception of animated postures. Our findings suggest the existence of modality-specific distributed activation of brain areas responsible for detection of postural instability.

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Victoria Galea, Robyn Traynor and Michael Pierrynowski

& Hazeltine, 1995 ; Semjen, Schulze, & Vorberg, 2000 ; Wing, 2002 ). Recent evidence points to the likely organization by more than one central timekeeper ( Repp, 2005 ; Repp & Su, 2013 ). The cerebellum may be uniquely involved with this form of control ( Ivry, Keele, & Diener, 1988 ; Spencer, Ivry

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Howard N. Zelaznik

: Evidence for a common timing mechanism . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21 , 3 – 18 . Ivry , R.B. , Keele , S.W. , & Diener , H.C. ( 1988 ). Dissociation of the lateral and medial cerebellum in movement timing and movement execution . Experimental Brain

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Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Ali Brian

). Further, there is a close link between the cerebellum (which is engaged in coordinated movement and motor activities) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (which is critical for executive functions and other complex cognitive function) ( Best, 2010 ; Diamond, 2000 ). Finally, there is also evidence

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Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti and Roberta Penge

cerebellum and/or basal ganglia (for a review of the developmental literature, see Grissmer et al., 2010 ) and recognized by neuroimaging evidence as motor and cognitive areas are involved in both LD and DCD ( Peters, Maathuis, & Hadders-Algra, 2013 ; Stoodley & Stein, 2011 ). Nicolson and Fawcett ( 2011

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Momoko Yamagata, Ali Falaki and Mark L. Latash

, Bourbonnais, Kalaska, & Smith, 1984 ; Wetts, Kalaska, & Smith, 1985 ). Importance of the cerebellum for coactivation has also received support in studies of patients with cerebellar ataxia who show excessive agonist–antagonist coactivation ( Mari et al., 2014 ). A number of studies have documented

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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang

cerebellar receptors. It might interfere with sensory integration in the cerebellum, or it might increase the inhibition of vestibular nuclei, leading to decreased vestibulospinal activity ( Fraschini et al., 1999 ). Fraschini’s group has shown that additional exogenous melatonin impairs stance control by

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Timothy A. Kulpa, Jamie Mansell, Anne Russ and Ryan Tierney

 ± 13 mm Hg) at p  < .001. Significant decrease ( p  < .0004) in number of symptoms from preintervention to postintervention. Preintervention: Healthy control group had increased activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum when compared to the combined PCS groups

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Mark L. Latash

multiple brain structures (cf. Cotterill, 2001 ). With respect to movements, this idea was developed by Houk ( 2005 ) in the form of distributed processing modules representing loops from the cortex and back to the cortex via the basal ganglia and via the cerebellum. Later studies have indeed supported

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Arturo Forner-Cordero, Virgínia H. Quadrado, Sitsofe A. Tsagbey and Bouwien C.M. Smits-Engelsman

, 2005 ; Hyde & Wilson, 2011 ). The predicted and actual sensory feedbacks are then compared, with somatic events processed at the level of the cerebellum and visuospatial integration in parietal association cortex. A functional loop between parietal cortex and the cerebellum is thought to monitor