In most Paralympic sports, a classification system is used to attain fair competition among athletes with various levels of impairment. The Paralympic classification systems aim to promote sports participation of people with disabilities by minimizing the impact of eligible types of impairment on
Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Daan J.J. Bregman, Monique A.M. Berger, Annemarie M.H. de Witte and Dirk-Jan (H.) E.J. Veeger
Kenneth J. Richter, Carol Adams-Mushett, Michael S. Ferrara and B. Cairbre McCann
Classification is intended to provide fair competition for athletes. Each disability group has developed different methods and techniques of classification to ensure fair competition. However, the 1992 Paralympics will use integrated classification for swimmers from the International Sports Organization for the Disabled (ISOD), the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation (ISMWSF), and the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA). The integrated swimming classification is said to be based on the research of Counsilman. The developers of the integrated swimming classification system have assigned point values for body parts involved in swimming propulsion. Counsilman (1977) refutes the assignment of points to swimming propulsion since it is unscientific and based on subjective evaluation. Further, the integrated swimming classification has yet to undergo extensive field testing to determine its reliability and validity. Additionally there are physiological, sports technical, and statistical problems with the integrated system.
Gale M. Gehlsen and Joan Karpuk
This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the National Wheelchair Athletic Association (NWAA) classification system in swimming events. The NWAA records of freestyle, butterfly, and backstroke in nine classifications of both male and female athletes were used (N=1,256). Each athlete’s speed was calculated from the reported time and distance. There was a significant difference in classification for all events except the paraplegic 50- and 100-m backstroke events. Post hoc data analyses within classification for the 50- and 100-m freestyle events indicated significant differences among all paraplegic classifications. Post hoc data analyses within classifications for the 50-m butterfly event indicated significant differences among all paraplegic classes except Class V and Class VI athletes. Tetraplegic within classification post hoc data analyses indicated significant differences between 1A and both Classes 1B and 1C. Gender differences were statistically indicated for all events. The logic of the medical classification system of the NWAA cannot be totally supported by these data. However, the results do not offer clear direction for any combination of classes.
Since its humble beginnings at the end of World War II, wheelchair basketball has incorporated a classification system for its players. The classification system ensures equal representation among team players and fosters positions and roles that are unique to the various levels of disability represented on a team (Goodwin et al., 2009). The increasingly competitive nature of this global game has necessitated an increasingly high level of coaching expertise. The purpose of this commentary is to take a practical look at the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation Player Classification System and the challenges it presents to a wheelchair basketball coach during the chaos of a game.
Walter E. Davis and Terry L. Rizzo
The detrimental effects of labeling persons as disabled is well known to special educators, many of whom have advocated doing away with labels altogether. However, as a fundamental of science, classification is extremely important. The problem may not be the labeling process per se but one of societal attitudes. Labels are both a product and provocation of attitudes. A review of the current classification systems pinpoints eight characteristics that are problematic in classifying motor disorders. Gibson’s (1977) theory of affordance offers one way of providing a more accurate and useful labeling system, and at the same time addressing, in part, the negative attitude problem. In an affordance approach, the label applies to the behavior as a product of the person/environment system rather than to the person alone, which is the traditional approach. The new classification system offered here, although not complete, differs from the traditional systems in several ways and is seen as useful to researchers and educators alike.
Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto
One form of spinal cord injury (SCI) classification is to stratify into 2 groups: tetraplegia (TP), which involves injuries between the cervical vertebrae (C6–C8), and paraplegia, between the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae (T1–L2). 1 , 2 This division is by the American Spinal Injury
Jeremy A. Steeves, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Rachel A. Murphy, George A. King, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, David R. Bassett, Dane Van Domelen, John M. Schuna Jr and Tamara B. Harris
classification of occupations, and, for the first time, began collecting steps per day and peak 30-minute cadence (the average steps per minute recorded for the 30 highest minutes in a day) from accelerometer data. 17 Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to describe the objectively measured daily PA
Marcie Harris-Hayes, Shirley A. Sahrmann and Linda R. Van Dillen
Hip function has been proposed to be related to low back pain (LBP) because of the anatomical proximity of the hip and lumbopelvic region. To date, findings have been inconclusive, possibly because the samples studied were heterogeneous. Subgrouping samples based on characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex might clarify research findings.
To describe and summarize studies that examine 3 factors proposed to be important to the study of the hip–LBP relationship.
Review of cross-sectional studies.
Academic healthcare center and research laboratory.
3 groups: athletes with a history of LBP who regularly participate in rotation-related sports, athletes without a history of LBP who are active but do not regularly participate in rotation-related sports, and athletes without a history of LBP who participate in rotation-related sports.
Hip range of motion and hip–lumbopelvic region coordination.
Hip range of motion was measured with an inclinometer. Coordination was examined based on kinematics obtained with a 3-dimensional motion-capture system.
Differences among groups were found based on activity demand, LBP classification, and sex.
When assessing athletes with and without LBP, characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex should be considered.
Frank M. Brasile
An investigation was undertaken to assess the relationship between the disability classification levels of wheelchair basketball players, as used by the National Wheelchair Basketball Association (NWBA), and the skill proficiency levels of the athlete. The assessment tool consisted of seven components deemed necessary for proficiency in basketball; these items were the 20-m sprint, free-throw shooting, obstacle dribble, baskets per minute, rebounding, speed pass, and pass for accuracy. The data used for statistical analysis were based upon the results acquired from 91 subjects who were tested in 1983. These subjects represented 18 NWBA teams from 14 states and Canada. The results of the investigation indicate support for placing less of an emphasis on the disability levels of wheelchair basketball participants, and for the development of functional assessment tools to be used in judging performances of “handicapped” athletes.
Packianathan Chelladurai and Harold A. Riemer
Although several authors have emphasized the need to treat the athlete as the prime beneficiary of intercollegiate athletics, there has been little effort to assess athlete reactions to their experiences. This paper stresses the uniqueness of athletic teams, develops a rationale for measuring athlete satisfaction, and emphasizes that athlete satisfaction can be used as a measure of organizational effectiveness. A classification of the various facets of satisfaction in athletics is presented. A facet is classified by the following criteria: whether it (a) is task- or social-related, (b) is an outcome or a process, and (c) affects the individual or the team. The extent to which the identified facets of satisfaction are exhaustive, exclusive, and internally homogeneous is discussed.