stereotypically considered masculine ( Bagihole, 2014 ) and often manifests in discernible “in groups” and “out groups” formed along gender classifications ( Hajek, Abrams, & Murachver, 2005 ). In these environments, women can be seen as “intruders” who threaten the majority (i.e., men), which can lead to
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Gareth J. Jones, Kristy McCray and Robin Hardin
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Allison B. Smith, Cheryl R. Rode and Robin Hardin
department and college classification were included. An open-ended question concluded the questionnaire asking for comments from the respondents asking if there was any other information they wanted to add. This open-ended question brought a mixed-methods approach to the study. A mixed-methods approach aids
Jörg Vianden and Elizabeth A. Gregg
engagement data. Table 1 displays the demographic characteristics of the sample. The researchers collected these data to understand the level of diversity among the participants, as well as show the participants’ overall level of engagement in campus life. Year refers to the students’ classification
Christopher R. Barnhill, W. Andrew Czekanski and Adam G. Pfleegor
, & Sorensen, 2006 ). Results Demographics Of the students who responded majoring in a sport management major, 211 (63.4%) were males, 120 (36.0%) were females, and two (0.6%) did not indicate a gender. In terms of race, students were allowed to identify with multiple racial classifications. Students who
Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu
author acted as the main coder, reviewed all data, and identified the categories for classification, the second coder reviewed the outcomes derived from the initial coding. This coding approach is deemed appropriate, as the purpose of the coding process was not to obtain identical answers or consensus
Passion drives sport consumption, but we lack valid relevant measures of passion. The results of two studies provide evidence of a reliable and valid multiple-item passion scale that may be used in the study of sports-related consumption behavior. In Study 1 a multi-item fan passion scale was compared with established social identification fan classification scales to provide evidence of discriminant and predictive validity. Because the passion scale outperformed other relevant fan classification measures, in Study 2 the fan passion scale was compared with current single-item measurement practices employed by National Football League and Major League Baseball teams, and some academics, to classify fans. Findings confirmed the veracity of the multi-item passion measure over categorical and interval fan avidity measures used by leagues and syndicated research providers. Taken together, the studies validate an accurate measure of fan passion that may be used to segment and predict fan behaviors, including consumption of traditional media (television, radio, news, and the team’s website) and consumption of the team’s official social media outlets.
Janet B. Parks
This study investigated the employment status of the alumni of a large undergraduate sport management program. Information was collected and analyzed relative to demographics, graduate school status, placement strategies, current positions, and salaries. Data treatment included descriptive statistics and chi-square. Statistically significant differences were found (a) between women and men relative to placement strategies, (b) between women and men relative to salaries, (c) between salaries of the major employment classifications, and (d) between salaries in positions related to sport management and those unrelated to sport management. Recommendations included encouragement of further investigation of the significant differences found in this study, utilization of the findings in career education, additional research focusing on career development rather than on employment status, and the use of more sophisticated research designs and more powerful statistical analyses in future studies of sport management career paths.
Alison J. Armstrong, Hal Hansen and Roger Gauthier
A theory based model was developed for the evaluation of high performance sport centers (HPSCs) in Canada. The model was developed according to de Groot’s (1969) four-phase interpretative-theoretical methodology. The phases of exploration, analysis, classification, and explanation guided the collection of current program evaluation literature and information on the nature of the HPSC program and its past evaluation practices. Appropriate evaluation models from the literature were assessed with respect to the HPSC program’s nature, and a single theoretical-integrative model was developed with corresponding guidelines for HPSC evaluation. The model is described with reference to (a) the role of evaluation at each stage of the HPSC life cycle, (b) the evaluators and decision makers, (c) utilization of the evaluation information, and (d) a general format for guiding the responsible national sport organizations through the important process of evaluation.
Daniel J. Larson and Joel Maxcy
The structural components of sports competitions and the characteristics of sport practices vary significantly. These differences may translate into different optimal employment arrangements for the professional coaches (those who prepare teams and athletes for competitions). While there has been academic inquiry into the practice of sport coaching, there has been little apparent research into the industrial organization of sport coaches. This paper presents a formal model of the coaching practice. The coaching roles as strategists and trainers are distinguished, variation in the significance of the connections in the nexus of team to individual relations is identified, and the various methods of sport preparation are classified. Predictions of the employment arrangements based on model parameters are made and related to some established stylized facts and survey results from both cycling training coaches and athletes. The model and data corroborate that cycling coaches be hired by the individual athletes not their cycling teams. JEL classifications: J22, J24, L23, L83
Daniel Lock, Kevin Filo, Thilo Kunkel and James L. Skinner
In this manuscript, we use Bitektine’s (2011) theory of organizational social judgments to develop a framework to Capture Perceptions of Organizational Legitimacy (CPOL). We outline a three-stage framework as a method to measure the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinize a sport organization’s legitimacy. In stage one of the framework, we defined the organizational context of a nonprofit sport organization in Sydney, Australia to establish the classification, purpose, and relationship of the focal entity to its constituents. In stage two, we distributed a qualitative questionnaire (N = 279) to identify the perceived dimensions on which constituents scrutinized organizational action. In stage 3 we distributed a quantitative questionnaire (N = 860) to test six perceived dimensions, which emerged during stage two of the CPOL framework. The six dimensions explained 63% of respondents’ overall organizational judgment, providing support for the CPOL framework as a context-driven process to measure constituent perceptions of the legitimacy of sport organizations.