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Thomas L. McKenzie, Kathryn J. LaMaster, James F. Sallis and Simon J. Marshall

The relationship of classroom teachers’ leisure time physical activity and their conduct of physical education classes was investigated. Eighteen 4th- and 5th-grade teachers reported on their leisure physical activity and had their physical education classes observed systematically during 4 consecutive semesters. Correlational analyses confirmed that more active teachers taught physical education differently from those that were less active. Teachers who were more active provided students with increased physical fitness activities, and the teachers themselves spent more time promoting physical fitness during lessons. The study provides some support for the hypothesis that physically active teachers provide higher quality physical education.

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Nell Faucette, Thomas L. McKenzie and James F. Sallis

A primary purpose of this study was to describe differences between self-contained and team teaching approaches when two groups of fourth- and fifth-grade classroom teachers attempted to implement a physical education curriculum during a 4-month in-service program. One school featured team teaching in pairs during physical education classes; the other used a self-contained teaching approach. The program required a minimum of three 30-min physical education classes weekly. All teachers participated in an extensive in-service training program that included weekly on-site assistance. Data collection included teachers’ lesson-completion forms, specialist’s reports, SOFIT PE class observations, teacher-completed Stages of Concern questionnaires, and teachers’ formal interviews. Results indicated that classroom teachers who used the self-contained model more consistently implemented the curriculum and more frequently expressed positive responses. Participants who used the team model for the physical education curriculum frequently strayed from the assigned pedagogical approach, ignored major portions of the program, and experienced extreme management concerns.

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Déirdre Ní Chróinín and Mary O’Sullivan

This longitudinal research explored beginning elementary classroom teachers’ beliefs about learning to teach physical education (PE) across time. Understanding how beliefs shape the process of learning to teach PE can inform the design of more impactful physical education teacher education (PETE). We mapped beliefs over six years including the three years of an undergraduate elementary teacher education program and the first three years teaching in schools through reflective writing tasks and semistructured interviews. Across time these beginning teachers believed that learning to teach PE required active participation in PE content, building of a resource bank of content ideas, and practice of teaching the content. Building competence in PE content through active participation combined with development of more complex understandings of PE content through PETE pedagogies can better support elementary teachers learning to teach PE.

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Collin Webster

Personal biography influences preservice classroom teachers’ (PCT) perceptions and attitudes related to school-based physical activity promotion (SPAP). Using an uncontrolled prepost design, this study investigated associations between biographical variables and changes in PCTs’ SPAP attitudes and perceived competence while enrolled in a 16-week SPAP course. PCTs (N = 201) completed baseline measures assessing biographical variables of year in school, sports participation, coaching/teaching experience, BMI, satisfaction with K-12 physical education (PE) and perceived physical activity (PA) competence, and prepost measures assessing SPAP attitudes and perceived competence. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance procedures showed statistically significant, positive changes in PCTs’ scores on all SPAP measures. Mixed-model analysis of variance/covariance techniques indicated sport participation, teaching/coaching experience, PE satisfaction and perceived PA competence were associated with changes in SPAP scores. Results suggest PCTs’ SPAP learning experiences should incorporate strategies for enhancing self-schemas and perceptions related to PE and PA.

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Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Studies of the influence of conventional methods courses on preservice classroom teachers (PCTs) have provided mixed results. The purpose of the study described in this paper was to break new ground and examine the effects of a critically oriented 6-week methods course and a 9-week early field experience on one class of 24 PCTs. Data were collected during and immediately after the early field experience by asking PCTs to complete critical incident reflective sheets, success/nonsuccess critical incident reflective sheets, and an anonymous reflective questionnaire. Analytic induction was used to analyze them. Results indicated that PCTs were able to reflect at a technical and practical level and achieved many of the goals at which conventional methods courses are aimed. Conversely, there were few examples of critical reflection. Personal, cultural, and programmatic factors explaining this finding are discussed.

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Collin A. Webster, Heather Buchan, Melanie Perreault, Rob Doan, Panayiotis Doutis and Robert G. Weaver

Despite its recommended use, physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) has received little attention in terms of the factors that help to facilitate it. In this study, a social learning perspective was adopted to examine the role of physical activity biographies in generalist classroom teachers’ (CTs) PAPAC. CTs (N = 213) were assessed on their satisfaction with personal K-12 physical education (PE) experiences, perceived physical activity competence, self-reported physical activity, perceived PAPAC competence, and self-reported PAPAC. Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized relationships between variables. Specifically, PE satisfaction predicted physical activity competence, which in turn predicted physical activity. Subsequently, physical activity predicted PAPAC competence, which predicted PAPAC. The specified model explained 41% of the variance in PAPAC, with PAPAC competence being the largest contributor. This study provides useful information for designing interventions to increase PAPAC, as it stresses the need to identify strategies that improve CTs’ physical activity-related, and PAPAC-related self-perceptions.

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Ben P. Dyson, Rachel Colby and Mark Barratt

The purpose of this study was to investigate generalist classroom elementary teachers’ implementation of the Cooperative Learning (CL) pedagogical model into their physical education classes. The study used multiple sources of data drawing on qualitative data collection and data analysis research traditions (Miles, Huberman, & Saldana, 2014). Data were gathered from teacher post-lesson reflections, researcher journals, field notes, emails, and documents (such as lesson plans, school physical education programs, meeting transcripts), and on-going interviews with 12 teachers from four schools. The research team drew four categories from the data: Teachers’ lack of physical education preparation, Social skills needed for Cooperative Learning, Teachers’ understanding of Cooperative Learning, and Changing pedagogy to a student focus. An important feature in this study was the on-going, embedded support teachers received from a critical friend and their collaboration in the school’s CL Professional Learning Group. The findings suggest that with this type of support, generalist classroom teachers can learn to teach CL in their physical education classes. We found that teacher professional learning should be hands-on, take place in a social context, and be embedded in teachers’ own school context.

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Collin Andrew Webster, Peter Caputi, Melanie Perreault, Rob Doan, Panayiotis Doutis and Robert Glenn Weaver

Physical activity promotion in the academic classroom (PAPAC) is an effective means for increasing children’s school-based physical activity. In the context of a South Carolina policy requiring elementary schools to provide children with 90 min of physical activity beyond physical education every week, the purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model of elementary classroom teachers’ (ECT) PAPAC adoption drawing from Rogers’ (1995) diffusion of innovations theory and a social ecological perspective. ECTs (N = 201) were assessed on their policy awareness, perceived school support for PAPAC, perceived attributes of PAPAC, domain-specific innovativeness, and self-reported PAPAC. Partial least squares analysis supported most of the hypothesized relationships. Policy awareness predicted perceived school support, which in turn predicted perceived attributes and domain-specific innovativeness. Perceived compatibility, simplicity, and observability, and domain-specific innovativeness predicted self-reported PAPAC. This study identifies variables that should be considered in policy-driven efforts to promote PAPAC adoption.

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Sarah Burkart, Jasmin Roberts, Matthew C. Davidson and Sofiya Alhassan

. Methods Participants Data collection for this study occurred as part of a larger PA intervention study called Project PLAY (Preschoolers skilL-based ActivitY study). 17 Project PLAY was a group-randomized controlled 6-month pilot study designed to examine the effect of a classroom teacher

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Cory J. Greever and Matthew N. Ahmadi

. Research to date suggests that a preschool center’s ORHB environment plays a role in children’s ORHBs. 9 – 11 A review by Ward et al 4 reported that for a health behavior intervention to be sustainable, it must be delivered by the center staff (eg, classroom teachers). However, teachers are generally