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Prasanna Sritharan, Luke G. Perraton, Mario A. Munoz, Peter Pivonka and Adam L. Bryant

changes, such as quadriceps force deficits and activation failure, are common in individuals with ACLR. 9 , 10 Furthermore, adaptations have been observed, such as elevated levels of quadriceps–hamstrings muscle co-contractions to increase joint stiffness, 11 , 12 which may stabilize the knee and help

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Momoko Yamagata, Ali Falaki and Mark L. Latash

(High-C). The baseline was defined as the normalized muscle activation measured as the magnitude of M2-mode during leaning forward position with the COP AP shifted by 3 cm. The average across subjects’ baseline was close to 5% of muscle activation observed in the maximal co-contraction trials. The

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Nicola Marotta, Andrea Demeco, Gerardo de Scorpio, Angelo Indino, Teresa Iona and Antonio Ammendolia

demonstrated that girls after menarche increase their quadriceps strength greater than their hamstring strength, which may put them at risk for ACL injury. Joint compression through muscular co-contraction allows valgus load to be carried by articular contact forces, protecting the ligaments. Several authors

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Yumeng Li, He Wang and Kathy J. Simpson

forces observed in the present study were possibly due to greater muscle co-contraction and also found in the compressive direction (described later). The CAI and control groups exhibited comparable peak compressive tibiofemoral contact forces during landings. Great compressive forces are highly

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Komeil Dashti Rostami, Aynollah Naderi and Abbey Thomas

after aerobic exercise in people with anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knees . J Athl Train . 2011 ; 46 ( 5 ): 476 – 483 . doi:10.4085/1062-6050-46.5.476 22488134 10.4085/1062-6050-46.5.476 34. Hall M , Stevermer CA , Gillette JC . Muscle activity amplitudes and co-contraction during

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Kerry E. Costello, Janie L. Astephen Wilson, William D. Stanish, Nathan Urquhart and Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

) 29.1 (4.6) 2 1.0 (0.0) • Longer duration medial muscle co-contraction Miyazaki et al 6 S Altman mJSN change of 1+ grade(s) 6 32 prog (88%) 42 no-prog (71%) 71 (6) 69 (9) 24.5 (4.3) 24.1 (3.2) 2 “nearest to 0.7” • Peak KAM/(bw × ht) higher Woollard et al 11 S Loss of medial femoral cartilage volume

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Chadwick Debison-Larabie, Bernadette A. Murphy and Michael W.R. Holmes

strategies to sudden head loading. Neck stiffness is an important preventative method in minimizing head movement. 12 Greater stiffness when external forces are applied to a system (such as checking in hockey) leads to increased robustness, muscle co-contraction, and the ability to resist perturbation. 13

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Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H. Keyak and Christopher M. Powers

knee flexors crossing the knee joint (medial and lateral hamstrings and medial and lateral gastrocnemius) were recorded at 1500 Hz using preamplified, bipolar, surface electrodes (Noraxon, Scottsdale, AZ). EMG data were used to account for muscle co-contraction in our biomechanical model (see details

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Bethany Wisthoff, Shannon Matheny, Aaron Struminger, Geoffrey Gustavsen, Joseph Glutting, Charles Swanik and Thomas W. Kaminski

actions. Athletes rely on muscular co-contraction, specifically ECC control during sports. This is especially true following an ankle sprain, whereby, return to efficiency will require musculature to co-contract to dissipate forces associated with the sprain mechanism. 18 Previous research examining the

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Han-Kyu Park, Dong-Woo Kim and Tae-Ho Kim

findings showed that respiration training stimulates the diaphragm and helps the abdominal muscles to mobilize, increasing the ventilation rate. The increase in intra-abdominal pressure that occurs at this time caused co-contraction of the diaphragm, pelvic floor muscles, abdominal muscles, and muscles