-reported significantly fewer symptoms to athletic trainers than they did in confidential psychiatric interviews. One lens through which to view the coach-athlete relationships and relational dimensions of concussion reporting is attachment theory. Bowlby ( 1969/1982 , 1973 ) and Ainsworth’s ( 1989 ) ( Ainsworth & Bell
Jeffrey J. Milroy, Stephen Hebard, Emily Kroshus and David L. Wyrick
Emily Kroshus, Jessica Wagner, David L. Wyrick and Brian Hainline
-athletes have the advantage relative to non-athlete peers of having a close community of teammates and multiple adult mentors in the form of coaches, athletic trainers, academic support staff, and athletics administrators. This means that there are many people who have regular and meaningful contact with
emphasis on incidents that took place many years ago ( Fasting & Sand, 2015 ; Symons et al., 2017 ). With these concerns in mind, the primary aim of this study was to explore nonverbal and verbal gender-based and sexual harassment by a coach, experienced during the twelve months immediately prior to the
Ashley Coker-Cranney and Justine J. Reel
When athletes “uncritically accept” the coaching expectations associated with their sport, negative health consequences (e.g., disordered eating behaviors, clinical eating disorders) may result. The coach’s influence on disordered eating behaviors may be a product of factors related to overconformity to the sport ethic, issues with coach communication regarding recommendations for weight management, and the strength of the coach-athlete relationship. The present study investigated perceived weight-related coach pressure, the coach-athlete relationship, and disordered eating behaviors by surveying 248 female varsity athletes and dancers from four universities. Mediational analysis revealed that the coach-athlete relationship was a partial mediating variable between perceived coach pressures and disordered eating behaviors. Subsequently, strong relationships between coaches and their athletes may reduce the negative impact of perceived weight-related coach pressure on the development or exacerbation of disordered eating behaviors in female collegiate athletes.
Kathryn Longshore and Michael Sachs
Mindfulness-based research in sport has focused on athletes, while coaches remain unexplored. Research consistently shows that coaches experience high stress, which can lead to burnout, reduced performance, and emotional mismanagement. The present study developed and explored Mindfulness Training for Coaches (MTC), which is aimed at increasing mindfulness and emotional stability while reducing anxiety. Participants were 20 Division I coaches. The mixed-method design included trait and state measures of anxiety, mindfulness, and emotion, along with qualitative semistructured interviews. Trained coaches reported significantly less anxiety and greater emotional stability from pre- to posttraining. The state measures showed trained coaches were lower in anxiety and adverse emotions at each time point. Interviews showed six distinct positive impacts on coaches: anxiety and stress; emotions; mindfulness; coaching; athletes; and personal life. MTC is a promising intervention for coaches to reduce stress, improve well-being, and enhance coach-athlete interactions.
Catarina Sousa, Ronald E. Smith and Jaume Cruz
Coach Effectiveness Training (CET) has been shown to have positive effects on a range of outcome variables, especially in young athletes (Smith & Smoll, 2005). Based on CET principles, and coupled with behavioral feedback, an individualized goal-setting intervention was developed and assessed using a replicated case study approach. Outcome variables included observed, athlete-perceived, and coach-perceived behaviors measured before the intervention and late in the season, as well as coaches’ evaluations of the intervention. Four soccer coaches selected three target behaviors that they wished to improve after viewing videotaped behavioral feedback. Behavioral assessment revealed that two of the coaches achieved positive changes on all three of their targeted behaviors. A third coach improved on two of the three targeted behaviors. The fourth coach did not achieve any of the established goals. We conclude that this approach is sufficiently promising to warrant additional research, and we discuss strengths and limitations of the study.
William R. Falcão, Gordon A. Bloom and Todd M. Loughead
The purpose of this study was to investigate Paralympic coaches’ perceptions of team cohesion. Seven head coaches of summer and winter Canadian Paralympic sport teams participated in the study. Four participants coached individual sports and 3 coached team sports. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results addressed the coaches’ perceptions of cohesion in the Paralympic sport setting and strategies used to foster cohesion with their teams. Participants described using techniques and strategies for enhancing cohesion that were similar to those in nondisability sport, such as task-related activities, goal setting, and regularly communicating with their athletes. They also listed how cohesion was distinct to the Paralympic setting, such as the importance of interpersonal activities to build social cohesion. The implications of these results for coaching athletes with a disability are also presented.
Francis M. Kozub and David L. Porretta
The purpose of this study was to identify issues that may need to be addressed so that adolescents with disabilities are better integrated into interscholastic sports programs. The Coaches Attitude Toward Integration Questionnaire (CATIQ) was developed specifically to survey coaches’ attitudes about including adolescents with disabilities in interscholastic programs. After preliminary reliability checks were made and content validity established, the CATIQ was mailed to a random sample of 397 public school coaches. Results indicated that coaches tend to show agreement with the statement that adolescents with disabilities “have a right to sport opportunities” in interscholastic programs. However, coaches felt inadequately trained to address the needs of individuals with disabilities in integrated interscholastic sports settings.
Lael Gershgoren, Edson Medeiros Filho, Gershon Tenenbaum and Robert J. Schinke
This study was aimed at capturing the components comprising shared mental models (SMM) and the training methods used to address SMM in one athletic program context. To meet this aim, two soccer coaches from the same collegiate program were interviewed and observed extensively during practices and games throughout the 2009–2010 season. In addition, documents (e.g., players’ positioning on free kicks sheet) from the soccer program were reviewed. The data were analyzed inductively through a thematic analysis to develop models that operationalize SMM through its components, and training. Game intelligence and game philosophy were the two main operational themes defining SMM. Moreover, four themes emerged for SMM training: (a) the setting, (b) compensatory communication, (c) reinforcement, and (d) instruction. SMM was embedded within a more comprehensive conceptual framework of team chemistry, including emotional, social, and cognitive dimensions. Implications of these conceptual frameworks are considered for sport psychologists and coaches.
Terry L. Rizzo, Paul Bishop and David Tobar
Attitudes and selected attributes of youth soccer coaches (N = 82, 18 women, 63 men, and one person who did not identify his/her gender) toward coaching a player with mild mental retardation (MMR) were assessed by Coaches’ Attitudes Toward Players With Disabilities (CAP-S) survey. Intereorrelations among 11 variables were reported. The highest were r = .72 between belief and attitude, and r = .57 between belief and intention. Results from a stepwise selection multiple regression procedure showed that as perceived soccer coaching competence increased, beliefs about coaching a player with MMR showed greater agreement. Results also indicated that, as perceived soccer coaching competence increased, attitudes and intention toward coaching a player with MMR improved. Perceived soccer coaching competence explained only a small amount of the variance for beliefs, attitudes, and intentions.