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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak and Albert R. Cavalier

baseline phase of the study. Demographic information about each participant was obtained through interviews with the participants and their parents. Cognitive abilities were tested with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011 ) by a certified school

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Julián Gandía, Xavier García-Massó, Adrián Marco-Ahulló and Isaac Estevan

information processing increases as children age ( Ferguson & Bowey, 2005 ). Therefore, motor learning principles for adults and children cannot be generalized because differences in cognitive abilities may contribute to differences in motor learning ( Pollock & Lee, 1997 ; Sullivan, Kantak, & Burtner, 2008

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Laura Pomportes, Jeanick Brisswalter, Arnaud Hays and Karen Davranche

improves cognitive performance, whereas heavy or prolonged exercise could lead to a decrease. 2 Recent studies have indicated that nutritional supplements could help limit central fatigue 3 possibly related to brain neurotransmitters disturbances, 4 and maintain cognitive abilities during exercise. 5

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Joris Drayer, Brendan Dwyer and Stephen L. Shapiro

gamblers are more highly involved in the activity, whereas extrinsically motivated gamblers may be less involved but may be more likely to exhibit cognitive abilities predisposing them to problem gambling ( Chantal & Vallerand, 1996 ; Chantal et al., 1995 ). The varying messages coming from the major DFS

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Kelsey Picha, Carolina Quintana, Amanda Glueck, Matt Hoch, Nicholas R. Heebner and John P. Abt

challenged participants’ cognitive abilities in a slightly different manner, as participants were asked to solve simple math equations. Overall, motor RT reliability of their 3 protocols ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, or fair to moderate. 7 Our 3 most similar protocols to the ones used in previous studies are

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Kelsey Lucca, David Gire, Rachel Horton and Jessica A. Sommerville

) Each of these methods has unique advantages and has revealed important insights into the nature of early persistence: these measures have uncovered that persistence is a relatively stable construct across development, and predicts broader cognitive abilities such as problem-solving performance ( Yarrow

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Paul M. Wright, Lauriece L. Zittel, Tawanda Gipson and Crystal Williams

, researchers have linked physical activity to improved cognition ( Tomporowski, Davis, Miller, & Naglieri, 2008 ; Tomporowski, Lambourne, & Okumura, 2011 ) and specific cognitive abilities associated with the prefrontal, frontal, and parietal areas of the brain ( Botvinick, Nystrom, Fissell, Carter & Cohen

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

, biomarkers, and neuropsychological screening methods capable of providing clinical baseline measures of normative function in the brain. The idea of assessment of normal function allows the clinician and researcher to understand what cognitive abilities are present under normal functional conditions. This

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Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins

cognitive abilities of players to become more evident. These cognitive changes are likely connected to the phenomenon of choking, where, given their typical level of expertise, individuals perform more poorly than expected in high-pressure situations. 26 In this way, tournament importance appears to be

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Pedro J. Teixeira, Adilson Marques, Carla Lopes, Luís B. Sardinha and Jorge A. Mota

for less than 1 year (nonapplicable to infants), non-Portuguese speakers, and individuals with diminished physical and/or cognitive abilities that hamper participation were excluded. The sample comprised of 2214 children and adolescents (≤17 y old) and 4339 adults (≥18 y old). For the present analysis