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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

(NA—awful, crummy, and discouraged), tranquility (TR—calm, relaxed, and peaceful), and FA (fatigued, tired, and worn out). Participation in structured physical activity sessions (such as a structured exercise program) can enhance PA and minimize NA ( Driver & Lox, 2007 ). Sport competition represents

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Christopher John Stevens, Megan L. Ross, Julien D. Périard, Brent S. Vallance and Louise M. Burke

Challenging environmental conditions involving high air temperature ( T air ) and humidity, combined with the demanding physical nature of elite endurance competition, create a risk of heat illness in elite athletes. As such, the International Olympic Committee has called for research that

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Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson

Despite the acknowledged importance of sleep for performance and recovery, 1 athletes commonly experience sleep loss following late competitions. 2 – 4 Specifically, team-sport athletes such as male footballers 4 and Australian rules footballers 5 , 6 have reported reduced sleep quantities of

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Mathieu Lacome, Julien Piscione, Jean-Philippe Hager and Christopher Carling


To investigate the patterns and performance of substitutions in 18 international 15-a-side men’s rugby union matches.


A semiautomatic computerized time–motion system compiled 750 performance observations for 375 players (422 forwards, 328 backs). Running and technical-performance measures included total distance run, high-intensity running (>18.0 km/h), number of individual ball possessions and passes, percentage of passes completed, and number of attempted and percentage of successful tackles.


A total of 184 substitutions (85.2%) were attributed to tactical and 32 (14.8%) to injury purposes respectively. The mean period for non-injury-purpose substitutions in backs (17.7%) occurred between 70 and 75 min, while forward substitutions peaked equally between 50–55 and 60–65 min (16.4%). Substitutes generally demonstrated improved running performance compared with both starter players who completed games and players whom they replaced (small differences, ES –0.2 to 0.5) in both forwards and backs over their entire time played. There was also a trend for better running performance in forward and back substitutes over their first 10 min of play compared with the final 10 min for replaced players (small to moderate differences, ES 0.3–0.6). Finally, running performance in both forward and back substitutes was generally lower (ES –0.1 to 0.3, unclear or small differences) over their entire 2nd-half time played compared with their first 10 min of play. The impact of substitutes on technical performance was generally considered unclear.


This information provides practitioners with practical data relating to the physical and technical contributions of substitutions that subsequently could enable optimization of their impact on match play.

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Sharon R. Phillips, Risto Marttinen, Kevin Mercier and Anne Gibbone

: (a) repetitive and boring, (b) an overemphasis on competition, and (c) fitness testing activities—what’s the purpose and why am I on display. The second theme was titled social factors impact attitude: sweating and changing. The third theme was titled PE assumptions, the easy “A.” It included two

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Paula B. Debien, Marcelly Mancini, Danilo R. Coimbra, Daniel G.S. de Freitas, Renato Miranda and Maurício G. Bara Filho

the athletes’ high level of performance throughout many months of competition. 7 – 9 The success of training, in turn, depends on the balance between the magnitude and distribution of the training load and the recovery applied during the season. 10 – 12 In order to avoid negative adaptations to

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Adam Beard, John Ashby, Ryan Chambers, Franck Brocherie and Grégoire P. Millet

. 2 Furthermore, it has been demonstrated in other similar team sports, such as rugby league, that as the level of competition rises from nonprofessional to professional level, the requirement for a higher number of sprints and need for higher strength and power abilities becomes paramount to game

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Colleen McConnell, Alyssa McPherson and Kathleen Woolf

dietary choices, as nutrition is an essential component of athletic performance and recovery. Appropriate energy and nutrient intake supports optimal body function in training and competition ( Beelen et al., 2010 ; Thomas et al., 2016 ). Exercise may stress some of the body’s metabolic pathways

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Marni J. Simpson, David G. Jenkins and Vincent G. Kelly

those experienced in competition matches by elite players. The second aim was to assess differences in external and internal workloads between positions during competition matches. Methods Participants Elite female netball players (n = 9, age = 24.4 [4.2] y, height = 181.9 [8.7] cm, weight = 76.2 [10

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

differently. 3 While the taper period is designed to reduce training stress and promote recovery, performance in athletic competition has been shown to induce a psychophysiological stress response irrespective of the reduction in training load (TL). Given the sensitivity of immune function to physiological