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E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels

The rate of dropout from one season to the next among competitive adolescent soccer players is up to 60% ( Temple & Crane, 2016 ). A study with US youth sport participants linked the rate of attrition to what coaches emphasize during practices and competitions ( Barnett, Smoll, & Smith, 1992

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Francesco Campa, Catarina N. Matias, Elisabetta Marini, Steven B. Heymsfield, Stefania Toselli, Luís B. Sardinha and Analiza M. Silva

dilution techniques and BIVA in athletes throughout a competitive season. Our hypothesis was that vector displacements could reflect changes in body fluid over the season. Methods Participants This was a longitudinal investigation of 58 athletes engaged in 5 sports (men: age 18.7 [4.0] y and women: age 19

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Jahan Heidari, Johanna Belz, Monika Hasenbring, Jens Kleinert, Claudia Levenig and Michael Kellmann

jeopardize career perspectives and continuous, high-level competitiveness in affected athletes. 3 , 4 Back pain (BP) exemplifies such a detrimental condition and ranges among the most prevalent and severe burdens in the population of athletes, with point prevalence rates of low BP ranging from 18% for

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Diane L. Gill, Betty C. Kelley, Jeffrey J. Martin and Christina M. Caruso

We compared two sport-specific measures of competitive orientation, the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988) and the Competitive Orientation Inventory (COI; Vealey, 1986), and an alternative 4-item version of the COL Male and female athletes and nonathletes at two small colleges completed questionnaire packets. Competitive-orientation scores were similar to those reported in previous research. The 4-item measure correlated with the COI, and neither of those measures correlated with the SOQ. As in previous studies, males scored higher than females on SOQ competitiveness and win orientation, and athletes scored higher than nonathletes on all SOQ scores. Our results suggest that the SOQ and COI do not assess the same competitive-orientation constructs. The SOQ assesses sport-specific achievement orientation; the COI assesses the relative importance of performance versus outcome. Our 4-item measure is comparable and provides a reasonable substitute for the more complex COI.

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Timothy Baghurst, Anthony Parish and George Denny

The purpose of this study was to determine reasons women become competitive amateur bodybuilders. Participants were 63 adult female competitive bodybuilders who posted their biographies on a bodybuilding website. Each statement explaining why participants became bodybuilders was classified by a panel of current female bodybuilders into one of six categories. The most frequently stated category was Emulation (27%), followed by Self Esteem and Empowerment (24%), Previous Participation in Sport (22%), Health (17%), and Other (10%). These findings suggest that motivators for competitive female amateur bodybuilding stem from multiple sources, but in general are similar to those of their male counterparts. Future avenues for research are discussed.

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Alexander Tibor Latinjak

purpose of this study was to describe goal-directed, spontaneous and stimulus-independent thoughts and mindwandering. The study consisted of a laboratory-based competitive task, experienced by athletes as similar to sports practice in terms of cognitive, motivational, and emotional factors. The task

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J.D. DeFreese and Alan L. Smith

profiles. The purposes of this study were to examine the potential existence of theoretically informed athlete burnout profiles over the course of a competitive season and to investigate whether these profiles could be predicted by athlete social perceptions. Exploration of the stability of individual

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Daniel J. Brown, Rachel Arnold, Martyn Standage and David Fletcher

Sport performers often encounter various stressors as part of their involvement in competitive sport. Their ability to respond effectively to these demands is likely to dictate how well they function in competition and, ultimately, whether they thrive or merely manage or succumb to the scenario

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Fábio J. Lanferdini, Rodrigo R. Bini, Bruno M. Baroni, Kelli D. Klein, Felipe P. Carpes and Marco A. Vaz

of this study was to investigate the effects of 4 different LLLT dosages on performance during a time-to-exhaustion test in competitive cyclists. The second objective of the study was to investigate the effects of LLLT on EMG spectral properties (overall, high and low frequencies) during the

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Mark T. Suffolk

The sport of competitive bodybuilding is strongly associated with muscle dysmorphia, a body-image-related psychological disorder. This theoretical article draws on existing concepts, namely stereotyping, prejudice, and positive deviance in sport, to explicate the notion that competitive bodybuilding and body-image disturbance may be mistakenly conflated. The perspective offered here goes beyond the countercultural physique to argue that a negative social perception of competitive bodybuilders obscures the pragmatic necessity to develop a hypermesomorphic physique. Competitive bodybuilders (CBs) and athletes in mainstream competitive sport exhibit congruent psychobehavioral tendencies. In a competitive-sport context, behavior among CBs perceived as pathological may primarily represent a response to the ideological sporting ethic of “win at all costs,” not extreme body-image disturbance. Analyzing the psychobehavioral characteristics of CBs within a sporting rather than a pathological framework, allows for a contextual assessment of behaviors to then determine the clinical significance relative to the research population under investigation.