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Sophia Jowett and Duncan Cramer

Guided by the work-family interface literature, this study examined the concept of spillover in a sample of elite athletes. It was conceptualized that there would be potential negativity and interference between athletes’ intense demands of competitive sport and efforts to maintain positive relationships with their partners. Antecedents and consequences of the potential spillover phenomenon were assessed in a sample of 87 elite-level athletes who had either romantic or marital, heterosexual relationships. Findings indicated that while trust, commitment, and communication were not strongly related to spillover, negative transactions were. Moreover, the occurrence of spillover was negatively related to sport satisfaction and positively to depressive symptoms. Finally, it was found that a mechanism by which perceived negative transactions were linked to athletes’ satisfaction and depression was through spillover. Spillover can help explain how personal relationships and sport are likely to contribute to athletes’ performance accomplishment and overall well-being.

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Kelly A. Forrest

Attachment (Bowlby, 1969/1982) is an interdisciplinary theory of social development that views early relationships with caregivers as central to how individuals learn to regulate attention under attachment-related stress (Fonagy & Target, 2002; Main, 2000; Hesse & Main, 2000). This paper proposes that conditions present in competitive sport situations, such as unexpected conditions, fear of failure, fatigue, and coach stress are likely to activate attachment-related attentional processes of athletes and differentially influence attentional flexibility under competitive stress. The attachment-based approach to performance-related problems in which attentional processes are implicated, such as anxiety, choking, and self-regulation, is discussed. Research using the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996) is suggested to investigate the distribution of adult attachment classification in the athlete population.

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Robin J. Farrell, Peter R.E. Crocker, Meghan H. McDonough and Whitney A. Sedgwick

Special Olympics programs provide competitive sport opportunities for athletes with intellectual disabilities. This study investigated athletes’ perceptions of motivation in Special Olympics. Using Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as a guiding framework to explore athletes’ experiences, 38 Special Olympians (21 males and 17 females) from British Columbia, Canada were interviewed. The data suggested that factors that enhanced autonomy, competence, and relatedness were linked to the participants’ motivation in Special Olympics programs. These factors included positive feedback, choice, learning skills, demonstrating ability, friendships, social approval, and fun. Social support from significant others was a key factor related to participation motivation. There was also evidence for the motivating aspects of extrinsic rewards. Motivation was undermined primarily by conflicts with coaches and teammates.

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Windee M. Weiss

to continue their competitive sport participation. Perhaps, these same constructs would influence injured athletes’ injury rehabilitation commitment in similar ways because many of the same psychological and situational factors may exist in both sport and rehabilitation. That is, long

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Aaron D. Sciascia, Arthur J. Nitz, Patrick O. McKeon, Jennifer Havens and Timothy L. Uhl

. Smith FW , Rosenlund EA , Aune AK , MacLean JA , Hillis SW . Subjective functional assessments and the return to competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction . Br J Sports Med . 2004 ; 38 : 279 – 284 . PubMed ID: 15155426 doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2002.001982 15155426 9

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Rachel E. Brinkman-Majewski and Windee M. Weiss

intrinsic motivation have been reported in the competitive sport setting. 14 , 16 Seifriz et al. 16 found that basketball athletes had higher levels of intrinsic motivation, as well as enjoyment, when they perceived a mastery motivational climate compared with athletes who perceived a performance climate

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Caroline Lisee, Lindsay Slater, Jay Hertel and Joe M. Hart

-level athlete’s success of returning to competitive sport. Functional performance was also different between men and women. Our results indicate that both strength (range: d  = 0.63–1.54) and hopping performance (range: d  = 1.52–1.68) are greater in males compared with females. Males consistently produce

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Nathan Millikan, Dustin R. Grooms, Brett Hoffman and Janet E. Simon

to high competitive sport. 37 Thus, the dependence on the traditional single-leg hop testing using limb symmetry to determine readiness for return to play may be inadequate to provide sufficient data to make return to play decisions, as the testing does not incorporate sufficient cognitive or visual

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Anthony Rossi, Tina Claiborne and Jamie Fetter

screening in this case, provided by this athlete’s institution, led to the diagnosis and treatment of his condition, allowing him to recover and return to competitive sport participation. If the athlete had not received this type of screening before participation, he may have become a victim of sudden

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Victoria Fauntroy, Marcie Fyock, Jena Hansen-Honeycutt, Esther Nolton and Jatin P. Ambegaonkar

Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA) • C omparison: Athletes participating in competitive sport (ie, team sports) • O utcome(s): Improved overall evaluation Sources of Evidence Searched (Databases) • CINAHL Plus • MEDLINE • PubMed Central • Primo by Ex Libris • Supplementary resources retrieved via