conflicting results, it is possible that, separate from any physiological changes, KTT may provide patients with a psychological benefit. In addition, it is also possible that the observance or endorsement of KTT worn by professional athletes may influence the clinical application of the tape. We are unaware
Kayla E. Boehm, Blaine C. Long, Mitchell T. Millar and Kevin C. Miller
Ran Zheng, Ilana D. Naiman, Jessica Skultety, Steven R. Passmore, Jim Lyons and Cheryl M. Glazebrook
Foundation for Innovation for funding this work. The authors would also like to thank Kelsey Brown for her assistance with data collection as well as all of the participants and their families for their willingness to participate and their helpful comments. The authors declare that they have no conflict of
Mary Lynn Manduca and Stephen J. Straub
pain, increase ultrasonography regenerative indications, and decrease recovery time. 1 Two studies showed no difference between groups. 9 – 11 Clinical Bottom Line While no adverse effects have been reported, the current literature demonstrates conflicting evidence regarding the benefits of including
Kelsey M. Rynkiewicz, Lauren A. Fry and Lindsay J. DiStefano
categories: overuse (18), posttrauma (10), diabetics (4), and other (4). Of these, only 11 patients were active in sport, highlighting the possibility of CECS being more common in the nonathletic population than previously noted. • There is conflicting evidence regarding sex as a predictor for CECS. In one
Erica M. Willadsen, Andrea B. Zahn and Chris J. Durall
of the studies found decreased landing knee-flexion angles in response to plyometric training. 4 Balance training or neuromuscular training led to decreased knee valgus and increased knee-flexion angles with landing in 2 studies. 2 , 3 Core stability training had conflicting effects on landing knee
Nickolai Martonick, Kimber Kober, Abigail Watkins, Amanda DiEnno, Carmen Perez, Ashlie Renfro, Songah Chae and Russell Baker
conflicts of interest to report. References 1. Hewett TE , Myer GD , Ford K , et al . Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes . Am J Sports Med . 2009 ; 33 ( 4 ): 492 – 501 . doi: 10
Jeroen B.J. Smeets, Leonie Oostwoud Wijdenes and Eli Brenner
We begin our response by clarifying the concept of detection, and explaining why this is needed for initiating, but not for adjusting a movement. We present a simulation to illustrate this difference. Several commentators referred to studies with results that might seem in conflict with our proposal that movement adjustments have short latencies because there is no need to detect anything. In the last part of our response, we discuss how we interpret these studies as being in line with our proposal.
Kimberly S. Peer
Sports medicine professionals are facing new dilemmas in light of the changing dynamics of sport as an enterprise. These changes have considerable ethical implications as sports medicine team members are placed in challenging ethical decision-making situations that often create values tensions. These values conflicts have the potential to threaten and degrade the trust established through the mutual expectations inherent in the social contract between the health care providers and society. According to Starr,1 the social contract is defined as the relationship between medicine and society that is renegotiated in response to the complexities of modern medicine and contemporary society. Anchored in expectations of both society and the medical professions, this tacit contract provides a strong compass for professional practice as it exemplifies the powerful role and examines the deep responsibilities held by health care providers in our society. Although governed by professional boards and organizational codes of ethics, sports medicine professionals are challenged by the conflicts of interest between paternalistic care for the athlete and autonomous decisions often influenced by stakeholders other than the athletes themselves. Understanding how the construct of sport has impacted sports health care will better prepare sports medicine professionals for the ethical challenges they will likely face and, more importantly, facilitate awareness and change of the critical importance of upholding the integrity of the professional social contract.
Joseph J. Godek
The key players in sports health care in the '90s will be physicians, athletic trainers, and physical therapists. The social and economic forces affecting our health care delivery system today must be considered by these professions as they assume their roles in sports health care. Athletic trainers are qualified to treat athletes in any setting but are best used in the traditional environment. Physical therapists should reemphasize the rehabilitation of the sick, infirm, and disabled and should take the lead in providing care for disabled athletes. Physicians must be the leaders in sports health care. They are best prepared to arbitrate the ongoing conflict between athletic trainers and physical therapists and to decide which of these professionals can treat recreational athletes.
Rebekah L. Scott and J. Gregory Anson
Conversion Disorder affects voluntary motor and sensory function and involves unexplained neurological symptoms without an organic cause. Many researchers have attempted to explain how these symptoms arise but the neural correlates associated with Conversion Disorder remain largely unknown to clinicians and neuroscientists alike. This review focuses on investigations of Conversion Disorder (with motor symptoms) when deficits in voluntary movement occur. No single consistent hypothesis has emerged regarding the underlying cortical mechanisms associated with motor Conversion Disorder. However, findings from electrophysiology, neuroimaging, and behavioral research implicate the involvement of prefrontal networks. With further research using measurement techniques precise in spatial as well as temporal resolution, the conflict associated with two views of the neural correlates of motor Conversion Disorder may be resolved. This will provide a better understanding of the impairment associated with the preparation, generation, and execution of intentional movement in Conversion Disorder.