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Paul E. Dubois

A limitation of most prior research concerning socialization via sport has been a reliance on cross-sectional/correlational designs. Thus, one purpose of the study was to overcome this limitation by implementing a longitudinal design. A second purpose was to test the efficiency of two theories—self-selection and interaction—that attempt to explain value, attitudinal, and/or behavioral differences often noted between elite and casual athletes, and between athletes and nonathletes. Instructional and competitive league soccer players were interviewed before and after their seasons to ascertain changes in their sport-related value orientations; this procedure was repeated the following season with the competitive league players. The data for the subsamples revealed (a) some initial differences in value orientations, and (b) a slight modification of values during participation over the course of a season. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of the study’s purposes, future research, and their meaning for youth sport practitioners.

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Cara L. Sidman, Jennifer L. Huberty and Yong Gao

This study has two purposes: (1) to observe the step-count patterns of adult women who participated in an eight-month healthy lifestyle-based book club intervention and (2) to describe step-count patterns across seasons and body mass index (BMI) categories. Sixty-two participants (mean age ± SD = 53 ± 9, 92% Caucasians) had complete pedometer data, which was used for data analysis. After weekly, hour-long, discussion-based meetings during months one through four, and bi-monthly meetings during months five through eight, women increased their step counts by 26%. Significant step-count differences were observed among seasons (p < .05), and from pre- to post-intervention (p < .05), with the lowest steps being reported in the fall and the highest in the spring. Women in the obese category continued to increase steps during the winter, while the healthy-weight group decreased steps. There was a significant correlation between the average steps taken during the intervention and changes in BMI from pre- to post-intervention (r = −.26, p < .05). Overall, positive step-count pattern observations were found among adult women participating in a healthy lifestyle-based intervention.

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Vicki Ebbeck, Patti Lou Watkins and Susan S. Levy

This study examined possible determinants of some of the health behaviors of larger women. Specifically, it was of interest to discern if affect (depression, social physique anxiety) mediated the relationship between self-conceptions (global self-worth, perceived physical appearance) and behavior (disordered eating, physical activity). The investigation was grounded in the model of self-worth forwarded by Harter (1987). A total of 71 overweight or obese women agreed to participate in the study. Data collection involved a researcher meeting individually with each of the participants to record physical assessments as well as responses to a packet of self-report questionnaires. A series of canonical correlation analyses were then conducted to test each of the three conditions for mediation effects outlined by Baron and Kenny (1986). Results suggested that indeed the set of self-conceptions indirectly influenced the set of behaviors via the set of affect variables. Surprisingly, however, involvement in physical activity failed to contribute to the multivariate relationships. The findings further our understanding of how self-conceptions are related to behavior and highlight the value of examining multiple health behaviors in parallel.

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Tracy Danner and Sharon Ann Plowman

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a preceding intense cycling bout on subsequent running economy in female duathletes and triathletes. Thirteen female duathletes and triathletes (age = 27.5 ± 3.36 yrs.) took part in three testing sessions: (a) measurement of running economy at 169, 177, 196, and 215 m·min−1 and running VO2 max; (b) remeasurement of running economy and measurement of cycling VO2 max; and (c) a 45 minute cycling bout at 70% of cycling VO2 max, immediately followed by measurement of running economy. Intraclass correlation coefficients between Day 1 and Day 2 running economy values ranged from 0.31 to 0.78. A systematic difference occurred at 169 m·min−1 only, with mean VO2 being higher on Day 1 than Day 2 (p<0.02). Based upon dependent t-tests, significantly higher running economy values (p<0.02) but not blood lactate concentrations (p>0.02) following the submaximal cycling bout compared to the control condition (mean of Day 1 and Day 2), at each of the four test velocities were found. Therefore we conclude that running economy was significantly impaired following a 45 minute intense cycling bout in female duathletes and triathletes, but lactate values remained constant.

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Cynthia A. Hasbrook

This study proposed and tested a theoretical explanation of how social class background influences sport participation. Two theoretical constructs of social class were operationalized within the context of sport participation and tested to determine how well they explained the social class-sport participation link: life chances/economic opportunity set (the distribution of material goods and services), and life-styles/social psychological opportunity set (values, beliefs, and practices). Life chances consisted of the availability and usage of sport equipment, facilities or club memberships, and instruction. Life-styles consisted of selected parental achievement and gender role expectations that encourage, fail to encourage, or discourage sport participation. Social class background was determined by father’s occupation as ranked in the Duncan Socioeconomic Index. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a stratified random sample of high school students, with some questionnaires eliminated to control for cultural and/or racial differences and variation in parental influence. The construct validity of the instrument was supported by factor analytic results. The test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was r = .956. Partial correlation analyses revealed that while individual life chances/economic opportunity set variables explained a greater portion of the relationship between sport participation and social class background than did the individual variables of life-styles/social psychological opportunity set, a combination of all three economic opportunity set variables and two social-psychological opportunity set variables accounted for more than 50% of the relationship between sport and class.

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Molly Burger and Dennis Dolny

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among body mass index (BMI), body image perception, physical activity habits, and exercise stage of change in college-aged females. Volunteers (N = 134) completed a survey of demographics, Stage of Exercise Scale (SOES; Cardinal, 1995a; Cardinal, 1995b), Physical Activity History questionnaire (PAH; Jacobs, Hahn, Haskell, Pirie, & Sidney, 1989), and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ; Cooper, Taylor, Cooper, & Fairburn, 1987). Participants were categorized into five exercise stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Relationships between the variables were analyzed with Pearson r correlations. Kruskal-Wallis independence tests were also used for analyses. Approximately 60% of the participants reported current physical inactivity or irregular exercise. BMI and body image score were significantly linearly related, with higher body mass indicating more negative body image (r = 30, p <.017). Significant differences existed between exercise stages for physical activity score, X2 (3, N = 134) = 19.98, p <.05. Based upon follow-up tests participants in the maintenance stage had significantly higher physical activity scores than all other stages. No significant differences were found for BMI or body image between exercise stages. Regular exercisers had the highest frequency of disordered eating and weight-preoccupied attitudes and behaviors. The majority of these women were not currently regularly physically active, professed dissatisfaction with their current level of activity, and expressed a fear of being fat. Further study directed at specific factors related to body image and exercise behaviors, as well as the impact of stage-specific interventions are suggested.

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Thorolfur Thorlindsson

This study examined the relationship between sport participation on the one hand and smoking and the use of alcohol and drugs on the other among Icelandic youth 12- to 15 years of age. Two indicators of sport participation were employed; one measured its extent in formally organized sports clubs, while the other measured the extent to which the subjects were involved in sports regardless of whether they trained informally or with a formally organized sports club. Two random samples of 12- to 15-year-olds from the urban areas of southwest Iceland, comprising 456 and 358 subjects, were analyzed to determine if there was a negative correlation between sport participation and the measures of deviant behavior in question. However, 3 of the 12 relationships tested were not significant at the .05 level. The findings do not change significantly when gender, social class, and age are controlled. It is concluded that the findings give cross-cultural support to previous research results indicating a negative relationship between youth, sport participation, and the use of alcohol, drugs, and smoking.

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G.V. Kondraske and P.J.H. Beehler

Traditional human performance research methods have consisted of multiple regression statistical models based on data such as physical size parameters, reaction times, running speeds, and jumping power. Despite widespread use over many years, the success achieved with these methods has been poor to mediocre. Robust methods for prediction and discovery of insights into human performance remain illusive. The purpose of this paper is to introduce General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) and the Elemental Resource Model (ERM) for human performance into the fields of physical education and sport. This theory and model collectively represent a new methodological approach with unique features that include: 1) modeling and measurement of all aspects of performance using resource constructs, 2) the use of cause-and-effect resource economic principles (i.e., the idea of threshold “costs” for achieving a given level of performance in any given high level task), and 3) the concept of monadology (i.e., the use of a set of “elements” to explain a complex phenomenon). Although the ERM is intended to encompass all attributes of performance of all human subsystems and to apply to any circumstance involving a human and task, we focus here on relevance and application to gender-related issues in physical activities. This is achieved, after presenting an overview of the ERM, by means of a description and discussion of a set of hypothetical experiments that may be used as a guide for conducting future research. Based on our preliminary investigations, we suggest that it may be appropriate to question the common practice of anticipating and seeking correlations between high level task performance and routinely acquired measures of more basic aspects of performance (e.g., the resources). In contrast to traditional statistical modeling methods, the new concepts and methods represent a cause-and-effect approach that is more similar to the process that an engineer uses to design a system capable of performing a specified task. We believe that the ERM and its associated methods offer a promising basis for a broad spectrum of research into often controversial, gender-related human performance issues and we encourage more widespread investigation, refinement, and implementation of the ERM and GSPT.

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E. Whitney G. Moore and Karen Weiller-Abels

.0) and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ≥ .70) of measurement ( Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007 ) in SPSS version 25 ( IBM Corp., 2017 ). Then, the mean, standard deviation, and correlation values were calculated in SPSS. This dataset was then used to conduct two-group (male and female) path analysis

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Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore

important to consider the mechanisms that promote people’s mindfulness in their daily lives. Researchers have started to examine sport and exercise as contexts that may provide opportunities to increase individuals’ mindfulness. Ulmer, Stetson, and Salmon ( 2010 ) found a positive correlation between