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Manuel E. Hernandez, Erin O’Donnell, Gioella Chaparro, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Brian M. Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

cognitive demands of balance-demanding ambulation. Given prior observations of increased bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortical activation when maintaining balance ( Mihara, Miyai, Hatakenaka, Kubota, & Sakoda, 2008 ), we expect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to be utilized for maintaining balance while

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Christopher J. Keating, Juan  Á. Párraga Montilla, Pedro Á. Latorre Román and Rafael Moreno del Castillo

Near-infrared spectroscopy and treadmill submaximal (Bruce) HIIT and MICT proved to be superior to RT for task-efficient cerebral oxygenation and improved oxygen utilization during cortical activation in older individuals. Currie et al. ( 2013 ) VO 2 peak, brachial artery endothelial function GXT and

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Amber M. Leiker, Anupriya Pathania, Matthew W. Miller and Keith R. Lohse

activation, and less alpha power in the left frontal region (i.e., more cortical activation) relative to the right frontal region is indicative of approach motivation ( Coan & Allen, 2004 ). In previous research, greater left frontal activity (i.e., reduced left alpha power) has been associated with approach

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Naroa Etxebarria, Megan L. Ross, Brad Clark and Louise M. Burke

.neuroimage.2007.10.061 17. Haase L , Cerf-Ducastel B , Murphy C . Cortical activation in response to pure taste stimuli during the physiological states of hunger and satiety . Neuroimage . 2009 ; 44 ( 3 ): 1008 – 1021 . PubMed ID: 19007893 doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.09.044 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008

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János Négyesi, Menno P. Veldman, Kelly M.M. Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi and Tibor Hortobágyi

). Functional magnetic resonance image finding of cortical activation by neuromuscular electrical stimulation on wrist extensor muscles . American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 82 ( 1 ), 17 – 20 . PubMed 10.1097/00002060-200301000-00003 Hari , R. , Hämäläinen , H. , Hämäläinen , M

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela and José María Cancela

in addition to being beneficial for their physical and mental health. 11 Finally, in healthy adult populations, being immersed in shallow swimming pools has been shown to stimulate brain activity and to enhance cortical activation, which would suggest that water immersion may be employed as a viable

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

with greater than 20% suppression of whole brain alpha power dynamics during the acute phase of injury demonstrated residual alpha and balance differences 1 year after injury. These findings, along with those of Thompson et al. ( 2005 ), suggest that measurements of decreased power during cortical

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Satyajit Ambike, Daniela Mattos, Vladimir Zatsiorsky and Mark Latash

subject being aware of the force drop ( Ambike et al., 2015 ). This phenomenon has been interpreted as a reflection of a limitation of the working memory ( Slifkin et al., 2000 ; Vaillancourt & Russell, 2002 ), supported by later studies of cortical activation using both electroencephalogram- ( Poon

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Anthony G. Delli Paoli, Alan L. Smith and Matthew B. Pontifex

.tics.2009.06.005 Carlson , S. , Martinkauppi , S. , Rämä , P. , Salli , E. , Korvenoja , A. , & Aronen , H.J. ( 1998 ). Distribution of cortical activation during visuospatial n-back tasks as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging . Cerebral Cortex, 8 , 743 – 752 . PubMed doi

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse and Serge Brand

.P. , Meili , L. , Fallon , E.A. , & Hatfield , B.D. ( 2000 ). Expertise differences in cortical activation and gaze behavior during rifle shooting . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 22, 167 – 182 . doi:10.1123/jsep.22.2.167 10.1123/jsep.22.2.167 Jasper , H. ( 1958 ). The 10