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Melinda Jane Craike, Denis Coleman and Clare MacMahon

This study examined the role of leisure-time physical activity in reducing the impact of high life stress and time pressure on depression, a buffer effect, for mothers of infants. A direct association between leisure-time physical activity and depression, regardless of both sources of stress, was also tested. A sample of approximately 5,000 mothers of infant children completed questionnaires that measured demographic characteristics, frequency of participation in leisure-time physical activity, life stress, time pressure, and depression (depressive symptoms). Hierarchical multiple regression incorporating an interaction component to represent the buffering effect was used to analyze the data. Frequency of leisure-time physical activity was significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms for both types of stress and acted as a buffer of the association between life stress and depressive symptoms, but did not buffer the influence of time pressure on depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that leisure-time physical activity assists in maintaining the mental health of mothers of infants; however, caution is needed when promoting physical activity for mothers who feel under time pressure.

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Ying Sun, Jing An, Xi Wang, Ping Zu and Fang-Biao Tao


The study aims to understand the possible gender difference in the associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms during pubertal transition.


Participants were 30,399 children and adolescents of Han ethnicity from urban and rural areas in 8 cities in China. Physical activity (PA) and depressive symptom was assessed by adapted Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Children Depression Inventory (CDI), respectively. Pubertal development was assessed by trained physicians.


In China, over 30% boys and 40% girls reported having no vigorous PA (VPA) or moderate PA (MPA) in the past week. In girls, participating in VPA 1 to 2 days/week showed protective effect for depressive symptoms; whereas in boys, participating in MPA 1 to 2 days/week showed protective effect for depressive symptoms at and after genital stage III (G3).


Moderate frequency (1 to 2 days/week) in PA undertaken might be encouraged to prevent depressive symptoms among adolescents.

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Florence Lebrun, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins and Sheelagh Rodgers

). However, less attention has been paid to the coping strategies employed by elite athletes to deal with mental health issues (MHIs) such as depression. This lack of emphasis is somewhat surprising given that MHIs in elite athletes have attracted considerable attention in recent years ( Gouttebarge, Backx

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Susan Aguiñaga, Diane K. Ehlers, Elizabeth A. Salerno, Jason Fanning, Robert W. Motl and Edward McAuley

Depression and anxiety have estimated prevalence rates of between 6% and 10% of older adults 1 and thus represent an important public health concern for the growing population of older adults in the United States. Depression and anxiety are associated with an increased risk of morbidity

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Richard Tahtinen, Michael McDougall, Niels Feddersen, Olli Tikkanen, Robert Morris and Noora J. Ronkainen

issues as non-athletes ( Gorczynski et al., 2017 ; Rice et al., 2016 ), there is also support for lower levels ( Armstrong et al., 2015 ) and higher levels ( Gouttebarge et al., 2019 ) in athletes than in non-athletes. In terms of specific mental health illnesses, depression has been one of the main

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Breanna Drew and James Matthews

 al., 2007 ). However, there has been inconsistency in study findings ( Newman, Howells, & Fletcher, 2016 ) with some studies reporting similar rates of depression in student-athletes as compared to the general college population ( Storch et al., 2005 ; Wolanin et al., 2016 ; Yang et al., 2007 ) whereas

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Lennart Raudsepp and Kristi Vink

have demonstrated that approximately 10% to 15% of adolescents between 11 and 17 years suffer from depressive symptoms. Because adolescent depressive symptoms are thought to predict depressive disorders later in life 17 and depression has a substantial impact on mental health and psychological

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Stine Nylandsted Jensen, Andreas Ivarsson, Johan Fallby and Anne-Marie Elbe

more at risk for gambling than members of the general population, research has also indicated that gambling is related to certain mental disorders. Gambling, for example, has been identified as a comorbid factor of depression and anxiety ( Gebauer, LaBrie, & Shaffer, 2010 ). The influence that anxiety

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Maria Priscila Wermelinger Ávila, Jimilly Caputo Corrêa, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti and Giancarlo Lucchetti

(i.e. social relationships, coping strategies, and life experiences) ( Birren & Schaie, 2001 ). In this context, resilience stands out for being intimately associated with better mental health, including lower prevalence of depression and anxiety ( Fossion et al., 2013 ; Hjemdal, Vogel, Solem, Hagen

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Lynette L. Craft and Daniel M. Landers

The effect of exercise on negative affect has been examined in hundreds of studies. However, the effect of exercise on diagnosed clinical depression has received far less attention. Furthermore, poor methodological techniques predominate and results have been conflicting. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise on clinical depression and depression resulting from mental illness. The chosen studies examined the effect of a chronic exercise paradigm (independent variable) on depression (dependent variable). Each study’s variables were coded: design, subjects, exercise, and dependent measure characteristics that could moderate the effect of exercise on depression. Moderator variables were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results from 30 studies showed an overall mean effect of −.72. Therefore, individuals who exercised were −.72 of a standard deviation less depressed than individuals who did not exercise. Moderating variables and implications for the prescription of exercise as an effective treatment for depression are discussed.