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Melinda Jane Craike, Denis Coleman and Clare MacMahon

This study examined the role of leisure-time physical activity in reducing the impact of high life stress and time pressure on depression, a buffer effect, for mothers of infants. A direct association between leisure-time physical activity and depression, regardless of both sources of stress, was also tested. A sample of approximately 5,000 mothers of infant children completed questionnaires that measured demographic characteristics, frequency of participation in leisure-time physical activity, life stress, time pressure, and depression (depressive symptoms). Hierarchical multiple regression incorporating an interaction component to represent the buffering effect was used to analyze the data. Frequency of leisure-time physical activity was significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms for both types of stress and acted as a buffer of the association between life stress and depressive symptoms, but did not buffer the influence of time pressure on depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that leisure-time physical activity assists in maintaining the mental health of mothers of infants; however, caution is needed when promoting physical activity for mothers who feel under time pressure.

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Ying Sun, Jing An, Xi Wang, Ping Zu and Fang-Biao Tao

Background:

The study aims to understand the possible gender difference in the associations between physical activity and depressive symptoms during pubertal transition.

Methods:

Participants were 30,399 children and adolescents of Han ethnicity from urban and rural areas in 8 cities in China. Physical activity (PA) and depressive symptom was assessed by adapted Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Children Depression Inventory (CDI), respectively. Pubertal development was assessed by trained physicians.

Results:

In China, over 30% boys and 40% girls reported having no vigorous PA (VPA) or moderate PA (MPA) in the past week. In girls, participating in VPA 1 to 2 days/week showed protective effect for depressive symptoms; whereas in boys, participating in MPA 1 to 2 days/week showed protective effect for depressive symptoms at and after genital stage III (G3).

Conclusions:

Moderate frequency (1 to 2 days/week) in PA undertaken might be encouraged to prevent depressive symptoms among adolescents.

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Florence Lebrun, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins and Sheelagh Rodgers

). However, less attention has been paid to the coping strategies employed by elite athletes to deal with mental health issues (MHIs) such as depression. This lack of emphasis is somewhat surprising given that MHIs in elite athletes have attracted considerable attention in recent years ( Gouttebarge, Backx

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Susan Aguiñaga, Diane K. Ehlers, Elizabeth A. Salerno, Jason Fanning, Robert W. Motl and Edward McAuley

Depression and anxiety have estimated prevalence rates of between 6% and 10% of older adults 1 and thus represent an important public health concern for the growing population of older adults in the United States. Depression and anxiety are associated with an increased risk of morbidity

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Richard Tahtinen, Michael McDougall, Niels Feddersen, Olli Tikkanen, Robert Morris and Noora J. Ronkainen

issues as non-athletes ( Gorczynski et al., 2017 ; Rice et al., 2016 ), there is also support for lower levels ( Armstrong et al., 2015 ) and higher levels ( Gouttebarge et al., 2019 ) in athletes than in non-athletes. In terms of specific mental health illnesses, depression has been one of the main

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Breanna Drew and James Matthews

 al., 2007 ). However, there has been inconsistency in study findings ( Newman, Howells, & Fletcher, 2016 ) with some studies reporting similar rates of depression in student-athletes as compared to the general college population ( Storch et al., 2005 ; Wolanin et al., 2016 ; Yang et al., 2007 ) whereas

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Lennart Raudsepp and Kristi Vink

have demonstrated that approximately 10% to 15% of adolescents between 11 and 17 years suffer from depressive symptoms. Because adolescent depressive symptoms are thought to predict depressive disorders later in life 17 and depression has a substantial impact on mental health and psychological

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Stine Nylandsted Jensen, Andreas Ivarsson, Johan Fallby and Anne-Marie Elbe

more at risk for gambling than members of the general population, research has also indicated that gambling is related to certain mental disorders. Gambling, for example, has been identified as a comorbid factor of depression and anxiety ( Gebauer, LaBrie, & Shaffer, 2010 ). The influence that anxiety

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Lynette L. Craft and Daniel M. Landers

The effect of exercise on negative affect has been examined in hundreds of studies. However, the effect of exercise on diagnosed clinical depression has received far less attention. Furthermore, poor methodological techniques predominate and results have been conflicting. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise on clinical depression and depression resulting from mental illness. The chosen studies examined the effect of a chronic exercise paradigm (independent variable) on depression (dependent variable). Each study’s variables were coded: design, subjects, exercise, and dependent measure characteristics that could moderate the effect of exercise on depression. Moderator variables were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results from 30 studies showed an overall mean effect of −.72. Therefore, individuals who exercised were −.72 of a standard deviation less depressed than individuals who did not exercise. Moderating variables and implications for the prescription of exercise as an effective treatment for depression are discussed.

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Patrick J. O’Connor, Louis E. Aenchbacher III and Rod K. Dishman

Exercise is often recommended to elderly persons for enhancing both physical and mental health. This paper reviews the scientific evidence relating physical activity and reduced depression in the elderly. Population based studies and experimental investigations are summarized and critically evaluated. Included is a discussion of some unique challenges that must be met in order for the relationship between depression and physical activity in the elderly to be adequately studied. The weight of the available population based survey evidence, on noninstitutionalized elderly only, suggests a moderate relationship between self-reported physical inactivity and symptoms of depression. However, there is no compelling experimental evidence that exercise per se is effective in preventing or treating depressive disorders in the elderly. Suggestions aimed at improving future research in this area are offered.