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Robbi Beyer

The motor proficiency of 56 boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was compared with that of 56 boys with learning disabilities (LD); both groups were divided into two age groups, 7 to 8 years and 9 to 12 years. Boys with ADHD were taking Ritalin and attending public schools. Boys with LD were medication-free and attending private schools for LD. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP–LF) was used to measure balance, bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination, response speed, visual-motor coordination, and upper limb speed and dexterity. MANOVA revealed significant main effects for condition and age. Subsequent univariate ANOVAs revealed (a) expected age differences on all but one item and (b) significantly poorer performance for boys with ADHD than boys with LD on all variables except balance, upper limb coordination, and response speed.

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Eva D’Hondt, Benedicte Deforche, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij and Matthieu Lenoir

The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5–10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Scores for balance (p < .01) and ball skills (p < .05) were significantly better in normal-weight and overweight children as compared with their obese counterparts. A similar trend was found for manual dexterity (p < .10). This study demonstrates that general motor skill level is lower in obese children than in normal-weight and overweight peers.

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Marieke J.G. van Heuvelen, Gertrudis I.J.M. Kempen, Johan Ormel and Mathieu H.G. de Greef

To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests included endurance, flexibility, strength, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time. The self-report evaluation assessed selected individual subcomponents of fitness and used both peers and absolute standards as reference. The results showed that compared to performance-based tests, the self-report items were more strongly interrelated and they less effectively evaluated the different subdomains of physical fitness. Corresponding performance-based tests and self-report items were weakly to moderately associated. All self-report items were related most strongly with the performance-based endurance test. Apparently. older people tend to estimate overall fitness, in which endurance plays an important part, rather than individual subcomponents of Illness. Therefore, the self-report measures have limited validity as predictors of performance-based physical fitness.

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Joseph J. Gruber, John W. Hall, Stephen E. McKay, Laurie L. Humphries and Richard J. Kryscio

This investigation explored the belief that physical activity therapy has a neurological value as part of the total treatment of mental patients. Twenty-two adolescents hospitalized with depression were administered a battery of diagnostic tests. Relationships among the Braininks-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency test (12 subtest scores) and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (14 subtest scores) were examined. All patients were nonmedicated and on a neurotransmitter controUed diet for 48 hours prior to testing. Results indicate that certain forms of motor performance can be predicted from measures indicative of both structure and fonction of brain behavior. The multiple R2 ranged from .80 to .06, with variance in balance, bilateral coordination, and fine motor skills being predicted from the receptive speech, tactile, right hemisphere, left hemisphere, expressive speech, motor, and rhythm measures of brain behavior. When explaining neuropsychological battery scores from motor proficiency scores, the R2 ranged from .65 to .28, with intelligence and expressive speech being predicted from the gross motor composite, upper limb speed, and dexterity, balance, and fine motor composite scores, respectively.

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Anne Jobling

This longitudinal research examined the development of motor proficiency in 99 children with Down syndrome born in Brisbane from 1973 to 1984. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) was used to assess motor proficiency, and the Stanford-Binet L-M was used to obtain a measure of general intelligence. Although significant progress on the BOTMP subtest scores occurred with age for most subtests, this was related to mental age (MA) rather than chronological age (CA). Progress related to CA was associated with upper limb coordination and upper limb speed and dexterity subtests from CA 10 to 12 years, not from 12 to 16 years. There were considerable inter- and intraindividual differences on subtest items. A cluster analysis of 263 assessments revealed no one profile of strengths and weaknesses. Two distinct profiles were found with high scores in either the visual–motor or the running speed and agility subtests, with balance scores at a low level of proficiency in both clusters. Across the study groupings, sex differences were also evident.

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Halla B. Olafsdottir, Sun Wook Kim, Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky and Mark L. Latash

We tested the ability of healthy elderly persons to use anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) prior to a self-triggered perturbation of one of the fingers during a multifinger force production task. An index of a force-stabilizing synergy was computed reflecting covariation of commands to fingers. The subjects produced constant force by pressing with the four fingers of the dominant hand on force sensors against constant upwardly directed forces. The middle finger could be unloaded either by the subject pressing the trigger or unexpectedly by the experimenter. In the former condition, the synergy index showed a drop (interpreted as ASA) prior to the time of unloading. This drop started later and was smaller in magnitude as compared with ASAs reported in an earlier study of younger subjects. At the new steady state, a new sharing pattern of the force was reached. We conclude that aging is associated with a preserved ability to explore the flexibility of the mechanically redundant multifinger system but a decreased ability to use feed-forward adjustments to self-triggered perturbations. These changes may contribute to the documented drop in manual dexterity with age.

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and Slope Grip in Rock Climbing Andreas Schweizer * Robert Hudek * 5 2011 27 2 116 121 10.1123/jab.27.2.116 The Loss of Dexterity in the Bilateral Lower Extremities in Patients With Stroke Ryoji Kiyama * Kiyohiro Fukudome * Toshiki Hiyoshi * Akihide Umemoto * Yoichi Yoshimoto * Tetsuo

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Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti and Roberta Penge

used in research to screen children with motor coordination difficulties and definite specific motor problems. M-ABC measures different aspects of motor ability regarding three subscores: three items measure manual dexterity, two items measure ball skills, and three items measure static and dynamic

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James Stephens and Susan Hillier

comfort, improved perception of body image, and dexterity. No studies reported adverse events. This review showed that the additional RCT studies provided strong evidence for improved balance due to Feldenkrais ATM intervention. Hillier and Worley recently updated their 2015 review using the same methods

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Ana F. Silva, Pedro Figueiredo, Sara Morais, João P. Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes and Ludovic Seifert

It is well accepted that a high level of expertise is characterized by motor dexterity, expressing the expert’s ability to reach the goal of a task correctly, quickly, reasonably (efficiently), and with resourcefulness ( Bernstein, 1996 ). Resourcefulness (i.e., the initiative and stability of a