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Lucia Andrea Leone and Dianne S. Ward

Background:

Obese women have lower levels of physical activity than nonobese women, but it is unclear what drives these differences.

Methods:

Mixed methods were used to understand why obese women have lower physical activity levels. Findings from focus groups with obese white women age 50 and older (N = 19) were used to develop psychosocial items for an online survey of white women (N = 195). After examining the relationship between weight group (obese vs. nonobese) and exercise attitudes, associated items (P < .05) were tested for potential mediation of the relationship between weight and physical activity.

Results:

Obese women were less likely than nonobese women to report that they enjoy exercise (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2−0.8) and were more likely to agree their weight makes exercise difficult (OR = 10.6, 95% CI 4.2−27.1), and they only exercise when trying to lose weight (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.6−8.9). Enjoyment and exercise for weight loss were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between weight and physical activity.

Conclusions:

Exercise interventions for obese women may be improved by focusing on exercise enjoyment and the benefits of exercise that are independent of weight loss.

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April Y. Oh, Shannon N. Zenk, JoEllen Wilbur, Richard Block, Judith McDevitt and Edward Wang

Background:

Crime may be a significant barrier to physical activity for urban African American women, yet few studies have examined this relationship in intervention studies. This study examines relationships among neighborhood crime incidents, perceptions of crime and safety, and adherence in a walking intervention among urban, midlife African-American women.

Methods:

The sample includes 148 women living in the City of Chicago. Violent crimes, disorder crimes, gun violence, and crime-related safety were examined. Adherence to walking frequency was measured as the percentage of recommended walks completed.

Results:

Controlling for demographic characteristics and treatment group, multivariate regression analyses showed walking adherence was not associated with any of the crime measures or crime-related safety (R 2 = 0.130 to 0.147). The effect of enhanced treatment did not differ by levels of objective or perceived neighborhood crime or safety. Weak to moderate bivariate correlations were observed between objective crime measures and perceived disorder crime and crime-related safety (r = 0.04 to 0.25).

Conclusions:

Weak correlations between perceived and objective crime measures suggest they are measuring different aspects of the crime environment. Future studies should examine perceived and objective measures in other populations and settings and other neighborhood social factors which may moderate crime and safety effects on outcomes of physical activity interventions.

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Andrew Renfree, Louise Martin, Ashley Richards and Alan St Clair Gibson

Purpose:

This study examined individual contributions to overall pacing strategy during 2- and 5-km rowing trials in a coxless-4 boat.

Methods:

A crew of 4 male rowers performed maximal-effort on-water trials over 2 and 5 km, and power output during every individual stroke was measured for each crew member. Mean overall boat and individual rower stroke power were calculated for each 25% epoch (25% of total strokes taken), and power for each individual epoch was calculated as a percentage of mean power maintained over the entire distance. The coefficient of variation was used to determine stroke-to-stroke and epoch-to-epoch variability for individual rowers and the overall boat.

Results:

In both trials, the overall pacing strategy consisted of a high power output in the initial 25% that decreased in the middle 50% and increased again in the final 25%. However, individual rower data indicate wide variation in individual power profiles that did not always mimic the overall boat profile.

Conclusions:

This study demonstrates that overall boat power profiles during 2- and 5-km rowing trials are similar to velocity profiles previously reported for individual ergometry and on-water racing events. However, this overall profile is achieved despite considerable variation in individual rower profiles. Further research is warranted to determine the mechanisms through which individual contributions to overall pacing strategy are regulated and the effectiveness or otherwise of seemingly disparate individual strategies on overall performance.

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Hsin-Yen Yen and Hsuan Hsu

efforts by older adults in order to decrease the risk of NCDs and future health burdens. Furthermore, health disparities among countries worldwide are urgent issues in promoting public health ( Nakamura et al., 2016 ). Therefore, the purposes of this study were to compare the prevalence of HEAL in older

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Sharon E. Taverno Ross

This paper provides an overview of the growing U.S. Latino population, the obesity disparity experienced by this population, and the role of parents and physical activity in promoting a healthy weight status in Latino preschool children. The main portion of this paper reviews seven intervention

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Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode and Marilyn S. Nanney

health behavior targets is to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities [eg, by gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position (SEP), place of residence], and improve the health of all groups. Significant disparities in PA among youth exist. 17 , 18 For example, boys are more likely than girls to be

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Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima and Elyse Bierut

beneficial to all adults, there are notable disparities in the adherence to these recommendations. Black women are among the most physically inactive demographic groups in the United States, and it is reported that only 36% participate in the recommended 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity

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Scherezade K. Mama, Lorna H. McNeill, Erica G. Soltero, Raul Orlando Edwards and Rebecca E. Lee

, Greever, Nwaokelemeh, Mendoza, & Barr-Anderson, 2014 ; Brown & Trost, 2003 ; Vrazel, Saunders, & Wilcox, 2008 ). Therefore, innovative strategies to increase physical activity are needed to reduce health disparities and mortality among women of color. Most behaviorally focused theoretical frameworks

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David X. Marquez, Robert Wilson, Susan Aguiñaga, Priscilla Vásquez, Louis Fogg, Zhi Yang, JoEllen Wilbur, Susan Hughes and Charles Spanbauer

By 2050, it is expected that 20% of the older population in the United States will be comprised of Latinos ( Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, 2010 ). Disparities exist between Latinos and non-Latino Whites in cognitive function, as Latinos have twice the incidence of Alzheimer

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Maria Kosma, David Buchanan and Jan Hondzinski

, 2016b ). Moreover, disparities in levels of physical activity continue to exist. Based on the most recent National Health Interview Survey on all age groups ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2016b ), 43.6% of African Americans