The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity-related change process a university athletic department was undertaking. A comprehensive model was developed by drawing from full integration theory and institutional theory. Following an organizational diagnosis perspective, data were collected through semistructured interviews, internal documents from the athletic department and university culture centers, associated websites, and press releases. Results indicate that political, functional, and social pressures for change influenced the implementation of various diversity initiatives. Despite these efforts, two primary groups of factors served to impede the progress: organizational factors, in the form of top management support and systemic integration, and perceptual processes, in the form of social processes and utility. Results suggest that for diversity-related change to be successful, it is important to consider how diversity impacts the entire sport organization, internal and external stakeholders’ perceptions, and the meaningful influence of organizational factors.
George B. Cunningham
Rosalind Chonise Gregory-Bass, Richard H. Williams, Bridget A. Peters and Asherah N. Blount
Diversity and inclusion in Kinesiology is needed to ensure the future professionals of tomorrow engage in recognizing the shared fabric of science and inquiry. Initiatives targeting inclusion and diversity have shown promise in bridging the existing gap. Vital to this process is the role of faculty, administrators and students in providing academic support and paracurricular exposure to the field of Kinesiology. Historical perspectives and knowledge of best practices shape the conversation regarding innovative 21st century options deemed necessary for meeting this challenge. Our review describes programs that strengthen the preparedness of undergraduate students. In addition, we outline existing strategies leading to effective partnerships between undergraduate and graduate institutions. Diversity and inclusion are integral to the achievement of excellence and enhance each institution's ability to accomplish its academic mission and to serve its constituents.
Dani M. Moffit, Jamie L. Mansell and Anne C. Russ
Temple University Owls Athletic Training Society (OATS), committed to education and community involvement, formed a relationship with Lanning Square Elementary School (LSE). Located less than 10 miles from campus in Camden, NJ, a high incidence of poverty, violence, and one-parent families is the norm. Through a grant, OATS adopted the fifth-grade classes at LSE for 1 year, beginning with letter exchanges between OATS students and elementary students. OATS traveled to LSE for their holiday party, met their pen pals, and provided healthy snacks. In the spring, the LSE completed a health/wellness unit and visited Temple. Students shared several health activities including learning about bones/muscles in the anatomy laboratory, stretching properly, and exercising. They received lunch and Temple mementos. OATS raised money the following year to continue the project. This allowed OATS and administrators to participate positively in our community, promote diversity, and introduce healthy lifestyles to youngsters.
Carl Gabbard and Glenn Miller
A survey was conducted of 163 colleges and universities to determine course offerings and diversity related to physical education for children. Information was derived from each institution through an analysis of the course description section of the institution’s latest catalog, or related materials. Data were collected through library (microfiche), interuniversity loan systems, or direct mail. Data collection and analyses included course title, description, and units of credit hours. The characteristics of each course were determined and categorized into one of the following areas: elementary physical education methods, motor development, games/sport, dance/rhythms, gymnastics, and other. Analyses related to each category and the total were reported. In summary, 63% of the sample offered a basic elementary methods class while 72% provided at least 2 credit hours of related course work. The average total credit hours offered was 6.3 units, with a range of 0 to 32. When the analyses included only those institutions offering related course work, the average was 8.9 units (which was interpreted as three or perhaps four courses). The diversity of course titles other than those generally recognized was also reported.
Janet S. Fink, Donna L. Pastore and Harold A. Riemer
This study applies a framework of diversity initiatives as a basis of exploration into top management beliefs and diversity management strategies of Division IA intercollegiate athletic organizations. This framework utilizes issues of power, demographic and relational differences, and past literature regarding specific diversity strategies to empirically assess these organizations' outlooks regarding employee diversity. Results of the study suggest that Division IA intercollegiate athletic organizations operate in cultures that value similarity. Demographic variables predicted a significant amount of variance in employees' perceptions of diversity management strategies. In addition, demographic differences (being different from one's leader) accounted for an even greater amount of variance in these perceptions. Top management's beliefs in the benefits of diversity were related to perceptions of different diversity practices. That is, high beliefs resulted in higher levels of diversity management practice. Discussion of the findings relative to current theory in sport and implications for sport managers are noted.
Moe Kato, Hama Watanabe and Gentaro Taga
To investigate the developmental emergence of the ability to change their behavior depending on environmental conditions, we studied spontaneous limb movements and subsequent changes in amount and pattern of movement while playing with a mobile toy in infants 90-129 days old. We calculated two independent indices to represent amount and pattern of movements. While younger infants only increased the amount of movement, older infants first changed their movement pattern toward the arm-dominant pattern and then increased the amount of movement. Although the diversity of spontaneous movements did not differ with age, only the older infants showed the two-stage process. These results suggest that there is a drastic transition in the changeability of spontaneous movements toward movements suitable for the specific environmental condition.
George B. Cunningham and Michael Sagas
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of age, ethnic, and organizational tenure diversity on occupational commitment and occupational turnover intent among coaching staffs. Data were gathered via questionnaire from coaches in 48 NCAA Division IA football coaching staffs (235 coaches). Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for the success of the team and the number of respondents per team, indicated that the block of diversity variables accounted for 18% (p < .05) of the variance in occupational commitment and 16% (p < .05) of the variance in occupational turnover intentions. Tenure and ethnic diversity were significant predictors in both analyses, although age diversity was not. Implications are discussed in relation to the complexity of diversity and strategies to mitigate the negative effects of group diversity on group-level outcomes.
Samuel R. Hodge, Dana D. Brooks and Louis Harrison Jr.
This article is divided into two major sections. First, the authors provided interpretations and conclusions about enhancing diversity in kinesiology based on the collection of articles for this Special Theme of the Kinesiology Review. There are six informative articles for this Special Theme on Diversity in Kinesiology that include Why We Should Care about Diversity in Kinesiology by Brooks, Harrison Jr., Norris, and Norwood; Diversity in Kinesiology: Theoretical and Contemporary Considerations by Hodge and Corbett; Creating an Inclusive Culture and Climate that Supports Excellence in Kinesiology by Lowrie and Robinson; Undergraduate Preparedness and Partnerships to Enhance Diversity in Kinesiology by Gregory-Bass, Williams, Blount, and Peters; Creating a Climate of Organizational Diversity—Models of Best Practice by Keith and Russell; and this final article. Second, we identify strategies and provided recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Black and Hispanic faculty and students in kinesiology programs.
Sarah Price, Richard H. Williams, Christopher Wilburn, Portia Williams, Danielle Wadsworth, Wendi Weimar, Jared Russell and Mary E. Rudisill
This article presents an overview of how faculty in the School of Kinesiology at Auburn University (AU) are working with minority-serving institutions in similar disciplines to promote diversity and inclusion. Florida A&M (FAMU) and Albany State University (ASU) are both Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), and AU is a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). Part of this initiative has been accomplished through the development of AU’s Future Scholars Summer Research Bridge Program in partnership with south-eastern HBCUs. Success has been measured as an increase in student recruitment and increased opportunities for students from underrepresented groups seeking graduate opportunities. The partnership between FAMU and AU has also provided opportunities for faculty and students to promote diversity and be more inclusive through research collaborations. These partnerships are addressing this important need to be more purposeful in our efforts of establishing greater diversity and being a more inclusive discipline.
Samuel Y. Todd, Ian Christie, Marshall J. Magnusen and Kenneth J. Harris
This case highlights key elements in Pelled’s (1996) model of diversity, and is based on real life interactions of an actual grounds crew in intercollegiate baseball. The small work group of three individuals collectively prepares the grounds of a new collegiate ballpark for opening day. In the course of daily facility maintenance, the staff encounters both affective and substantive conflict according to Pelled’s model. This leads to both destructive and constructive performance outcomes. Also of issue in the case is the differential relationship that the supervisor shares with each of his subordinates, or leader member exchange (LMX). Together with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) elements of group conflict arising from demographic diversity and (2) the nature of LMX within sport organizations. An overview of theory, student applications, and discussion questions and answers are provided to aid instructors in teaching this case.