To investigate the developmental emergence of the ability to change their behavior depending on environmental conditions, we studied spontaneous limb movements and subsequent changes in amount and pattern of movement while playing with a mobile toy in infants 90-129 days old. We calculated two independent indices to represent amount and pattern of movements. While younger infants only increased the amount of movement, older infants first changed their movement pattern toward the arm-dominant pattern and then increased the amount of movement. Although the diversity of spontaneous movements did not differ with age, only the older infants showed the two-stage process. These results suggest that there is a drastic transition in the changeability of spontaneous movements toward movements suitable for the specific environmental condition.
Moe Kato, Hama Watanabe and Gentaro Taga
Janet S. Fink, Donna L. Pastore and Harold A. Riemer
This study applies a framework of diversity initiatives as a basis of exploration into top management beliefs and diversity management strategies of Division IA intercollegiate athletic organizations. This framework utilizes issues of power, demographic and relational differences, and past literature regarding specific diversity strategies to empirically assess these organizations' outlooks regarding employee diversity. Results of the study suggest that Division IA intercollegiate athletic organizations operate in cultures that value similarity. Demographic variables predicted a significant amount of variance in employees' perceptions of diversity management strategies. In addition, demographic differences (being different from one's leader) accounted for an even greater amount of variance in these perceptions. Top management's beliefs in the benefits of diversity were related to perceptions of different diversity practices. That is, high beliefs resulted in higher levels of diversity management practice. Discussion of the findings relative to current theory in sport and implications for sport managers are noted.
Samuel R. Hodge, Dana D. Brooks and Louis Harrison Jr.
This article is divided into two major sections. First, the authors provided interpretations and conclusions about enhancing diversity in kinesiology based on the collection of articles for this Special Theme of the Kinesiology Review. There are six informative articles for this Special Theme on Diversity in Kinesiology that include Why We Should Care about Diversity in Kinesiology by Brooks, Harrison Jr., Norris, and Norwood; Diversity in Kinesiology: Theoretical and Contemporary Considerations by Hodge and Corbett; Creating an Inclusive Culture and Climate that Supports Excellence in Kinesiology by Lowrie and Robinson; Undergraduate Preparedness and Partnerships to Enhance Diversity in Kinesiology by Gregory-Bass, Williams, Blount, and Peters; Creating a Climate of Organizational Diversity—Models of Best Practice by Keith and Russell; and this final article. Second, we identify strategies and provided recommendations to increase the presence and improve the experiences of Black and Hispanic faculty and students in kinesiology programs.
George B. Cunningham and Michael Sagas
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of age, ethnic, and organizational tenure diversity on occupational commitment and occupational turnover intent among coaching staffs. Data were gathered via questionnaire from coaches in 48 NCAA Division IA football coaching staffs (235 coaches). Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for the success of the team and the number of respondents per team, indicated that the block of diversity variables accounted for 18% (p < .05) of the variance in occupational commitment and 16% (p < .05) of the variance in occupational turnover intentions. Tenure and ethnic diversity were significant predictors in both analyses, although age diversity was not. Implications are discussed in relation to the complexity of diversity and strategies to mitigate the negative effects of group diversity on group-level outcomes.
George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon
, 2017 ) and 44% of all intercollegiate athletes ( Irick, 2017 ). Despite these numbers, women represented only 27% of the head coaches at the youth level ( Flanagan, 2017 ), approximately 21% at the interscholastic level ( Flanagan, 2017 ), and 24% at the intercollegiate level ( Diversity Research, 2017
Sarah Price, Richard H. Williams, Christopher Wilburn, Portia Williams, Danielle Wadsworth, Wendi Weimar, Jared Russell and Mary E. Rudisill
This article presents an overview of how faculty in the School of Kinesiology at Auburn University (AU) are working with minority-serving institutions in similar disciplines to promote diversity and inclusion. Florida A&M (FAMU) and Albany State University (ASU) are both Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), and AU is a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). Part of this initiative has been accomplished through the development of AU’s Future Scholars Summer Research Bridge Program in partnership with south-eastern HBCUs. Success has been measured as an increase in student recruitment and increased opportunities for students from underrepresented groups seeking graduate opportunities. The partnership between FAMU and AU has also provided opportunities for faculty and students to promote diversity and be more inclusive through research collaborations. These partnerships are addressing this important need to be more purposeful in our efforts of establishing greater diversity and being a more inclusive discipline.
George B. Cunningham
Previous research on diversity has been criticized for failing to include intervening and process variables. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two intervening variables, perceived group diversity and a common in-group identity, on the relationship between group diversity and group outcomes. Data were collected from 45 track-and-field coaching staffs (N = 175 participants). Hierarchical-regression analysis revealed that actual diversity was positively related to perceptions of such differences, and, in turn, perceptions of diversity were related to a common in-group identity. Finally, a common in-group identity was negatively related to organizational turnover intentions of the group and positively related to two measures of group effectiveness. Theoretical contributions and implications for diverse groups are discussed.