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Erik Sesbreno, Gary Slater, Margo Mountjoy and Stuart D.R. Galloway

performance in the field. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly integrated into the monitoring of athletic populations to provide timely information on both absolute and relative whole-body and regional body composition, plus bone health ( Meyer et al., 2013 ). However, without careful

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Daniel Arvidsson, Elias Johannesson, Lars Bo Andersen, Magnus Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Ola Thorsson and Magnus Dencker

fat (in kilograms) was determined from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DPX-L version 1.3z; Lunar, Madison, WI). 25 Body fat percentage (%) was calculated as the quotient of body fat and total body mass, and used in the statistical analyses. Statistics Structural equation modeling, with observed

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Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad, Damian J. Marsh, Karen Hind and Gary J. Slater

dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for body composition assessment in elite RU has increased ( Lees et al., 2017 ; Zemski et al., 2015 ). This technology provides an in-depth analysis of whole body and regional bone mineral content (BMC), FM, and LM, and is recognized as a valid and precise body

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Disa J. Smee, Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Julie A. Cooke, Ben G. Serpell and Kate L. Pumpa

), and instead relies on overall weight changes ( Walker et al., 2014 ). Given the previously stated limitations of BMI as a tool to assess the body composition of firefighters, researchers have utilized dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) ( Bilzon et al., 2001 ); hydrostatic densitometry ( Donovan et

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Carl Persson, Flinn Shiel, Mike Climstein and James Furness

accurately and effectively measure whole-body and segmental BMD led to the development of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner, which is now considered the gold standard for BMD and body composition (BC) ( Blake & Fogelman, 2007 ; Lewiecki, 2005 ). Low BMD (osteoporosis and osteopenia) is a

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Amy R. Lewis, William S.P. Robertson, Elissa J. Phillips, Paul N. Grimshaw and Marc Portus

’Brien et al 29 used magnetic resonance imaging scans to obtain muscle volume, which was divided by optimal fascicle length at the angle of peak force, as measured using ultrasound images. Alternatively, this has been achieved using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography. However

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Eric C. Haakonssen, David T. Martin, Louise M. Burke and David G. Jenkins

Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30–40 kcal · kg fat-free mass−1 · d−1 and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (−2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (−3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.

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Zachary Merrill, Grace Bova, April Chambers and Rakié Cham

body mass index (BMI) influence parameters, particularly in large segments such as the thigh and trunk. 16 Thus, the current study, using in vivo dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data, aims to objectively quantify the impact of trunk segmentation method on trunk BSPs in normal weight and morbidly

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Darren G. Candow, Philip D. Chilibeck, Karen E. Chad, Murray J. Chrusch, K. Shawn Davison and Darren G. Burke

The authors previously found that creatine (Cr) combined with 12 weeks of resistance training enhanced muscle strength and endurance and lean tissue mass (LTM) in older men. Their purpose in this study was to assess these variables with cessation of Cr combined with 12 weeks of reduced training (33% lower volume) in a subgroup of these men (n = 8, 73 years old) compared with 5 men (69 years old) who did not receive Cr. Strength (1-repetition maximum [1-RM]), endurance (maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets at 70–80% 1-RM), and LTM (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed before and after 12 weeks of Cr cessation combined with reduced-volume training. No changes in strength or LTM occurred. Muscle endurance was significantly reduced (7–21%; p < .05), with the rate of change similar between groups. Withdrawal from Cr had no effect on the rate of strength, endurance, and loss of lean tissue mass with 12 weeks of reduced-volume training.

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José L. Areta

mineral density; BMI = body mass index; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight Loss Interventions Body mass reduced from 54 to 52.3 kg (1.7 kg decrease, 6-week intervention, rate of weight loss 0.28 kg/week) during Intervention 1 and from 59.2 to 55.9 kg (3.3 kg decrease, 6-week intervention, rate