Weight-conscious drinking is the use of disordered eating behaviors in anticipation of or as compensation for calories consumed during alcohol use. The aim of the current study is to assess the relationship between weight-conscious drinking, athletic status, and sport type. Participants were 295 college students (82 male and 213 female; Mage = 20.10) from a midsized Midwestern university. Participants completed an online survey that included items assessing alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS). In comparison with nonathletes, student-athletes had lower EAT-26 and CEBRACS scores; RAPI scores did not differ between the two groups. Lean-sport athletes differed concerning CEBRACS diet/exercise subscales in comparison with nonlean-sport athletes.
Marina Galante, Rose Marie Ward and Robert Weinberg
Edith Filaire, Patrick Treuvelot and Hechmi Toumi
This study explores the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in a sample of male first-year university students engaged in a physical education program and examines the relationships between emotional intelligence, coping, and emotional eating in relation to disordered-eating (DE) attitudes. A total of 140 students completed the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, the Coping Inventory Stress Scale, and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. The number of participants represented 80% of the male students registered in this discipline at the authors’ university. Twenty percent of students presented DE attitudes even though they were of normal weight. The Bar-On EQ-I results indicated that students with DE attitudes had lower levels of emotional intelligence (EI) scores than students without DE attitudes (control group). Moreover, they scored higher than the control group on coping styles such as avoidance-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping, and emotional eating. The DE group presented a positive correlation between DE attitudes symptoms and both avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping but a negative correlation between DE attitudes and task-oriented coping. There was also a significant negative correlation between DE attitudes and EI score. Another result from this group indicated an association between EI score and emotional-eating score (p < .05, r = –.44) and also a positive correlation between emotion-oriented coping and emotional eating (p < .01, r = .47). The findings highlight future research potential on the role of emotions and EI in DE symptoms, which may be beneficial in the context of collaborative care management intervention.
Mary Yannakoulia, Antonios Keramopoulos and Antonia-Leda Matalas
The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of several environmental factors on bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of highly active young women. Body composition, total body and regional (arms, legs and trunk) BMD, dietary intake, menstrual status, training habits, and eating attitudes were assessed in 37 professional dance students, aged 18 to 26 years. Dancers had higher BMD values compared to age- and weight-matched reference population (mean total body BMD: 1.185 g/cm2, 9% higher than reference values). No differences were detected between currently eumenorrheic and noneumenorrheic dancers; subjects who encountered menstrual problems during adolescence had significantly lower BMD values compared to counterparts who did not. Regarding dietary intake, dancers in the highest quartile of calcium intake (1323 ±113 mg/d) exhibited significantly higher total BMD values than subjects in the other 3 quartiles (p = .04). A moderate inverse relationship was found between protein intake and total BMD, after controlling for energy and calcium intake (r = -0.37). Fat-free soft mass was the only significant predictor of total BMD, explaining 20% of the variance. High levels of calcium intake were associated with high total BMD values. These results confirm the beneficial role of long-term and intensive physical activity on BMD and further suggest that dancers are not at a greater risk compared to the general population for developing osteoporosis, despite their menstrual and eating problems.
Arlette C. Perry, Linda S. Crane, Brooks Applegate, Sylvia Marquez-Sterling, Joseph F. Signorile and Paul C. Miller
The present study showed that amenorrheic athletes (AAs) scored higher on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) (p < .05) than eumenorrheic athletes (EAs), indicating more aberrant eating patterns in the first group. Scores on the EAT were inversely correlated with fat intake (p < .05), simple carbohydrate intake (p < .01), and percentage saturation of iron (p < .05) and were positively correlated with total iron binding capacity (p < .01) for the total sample. Physiological assessment of athletes revealed that there were no significant differences between groups in serum lipoproteins, with both EAs and AAs having serum lipid profiles indicative of low cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the only lipoprotein significantly and positively correlated with serum estradiol levels for the entire sample (p = .01). The present study was in agreement with previous work showing that scores on the EAT represent a primary difference between EAs and AAs; the present study was somewhat different than previous work in that serum lipoproteins were not significantly related to menstrual status.
Lenka, H. Shriver, Gena Wollenberg and Gail E. Gates
The number of females participating in college sports in the U.S. has increased in last two decades. While female college athletes might be at a high risk, research examining disordered eating in this population is limited and difficult to summarize due to differences in methodologies. Factors contributing to disordered eating in female college athletes are not well established, but emotional regulation may be a potential correlate. The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of disordered eating and explore potential differences between weight-sensitive and less weight-sensitive sports in a sample of female college athletes. The second purpose was to examine emotional regulation, body dissatisfaction, sport type, a family history of eating disorder, and BMI as potential predictors of disordered eating. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey were used to estimate disordered eating prevalence in a sample of 151 athletes. Emotion regulation was assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The prevalence of disordered eating was 6.6% and 10.6%, respectively, with no differences by sport type. The multiple regression model explained 11% of the EAT-26 variance, F(5, 150) = 3.74, p < .01. Greater emotional regulation difficulties (β = .174, t = 2.191, p = .03) and body dissatisfaction (β = .276, t = 2.878, p = .005) were significant predictors of disordered eating. Further examination of emotional regulation and body dissatisfaction in relation to disordered eating in female college athletes is warranted.
Brenda L. Webster and Susan I. Barr
Calcium intake and its association with dieting behavior were assessed in female adolescents competing in an aesthetic and a nonaesthetic sport (gymnastics and speed skating). Athletes were 25 skaters and 32 gymnasts competing at a provincial level or higher. Calcium intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire; dieting behavior by the Eating Attitudes Test Dieting subscale; and body composition by skinfolds, height, and weight. Mean calcium intakes of both groups of athletes exceeded Canadian recommendations, and skaters' mean intakes exceeded U.S. recommendations; however, many individuals had low intakes. Gymnasts were leaner than skaters and had lower calcium intakes, but this difference was not associated with Dieting subscale scores, which were similar between sports and were not correlated with calcium intake. Athletes had higher mean calcium intakes than normally active adolescents studied (measured with a similar protocol) and had lower Dieting subscale scores. Thus, although calcium intakes of some athletes require attention, sport participation was associated with increased intakes. Also, for these athletes, dieting behavior did not directly interfere with calcium intake.
Kathryn H. Myburgh, Claire Berman, Illana Novick, Timothy D. Noakes and Estelle V. Lambert
We studied 21 ballet dancers aged 19.4 ± 1.4 years, hypothesizing that undernu-trition was a major factor in menstrual irregularity in this population. Menstrual history was determined by questionnaire. Eight dancers had always been regular (R). Thirteen subjects had a history of menstrual irregularity (HI). Of these, 2 were currently regularly menstruating, 3 had short cycles, 6 were oligomenorrheic, and 2 were amenorrheic. Subjects completed a weighed dietary record and an Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). The following physiological parameters were measured: body composition by anthropometry, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by open-circuit indirect calorimetry, and serum thyroid hormone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. R subjects had significantly higher RMR than HI subjects. Also, HI subjects had lower RMR than predicted by fat-free mass, compared to the R subjects. Neitherreported energy intake nor serum thyroid hormone concentrations were different between R and HI subjects. EAT scores varied and were not different between groups. We concluded that in ballet dancers, low RMR is more strongly associated with menstrual irregularity than is currentreported energy intake or serum thyroid hormone concentrations.
Pouya Saeedi, Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib and Hazizi Abu Saad
Nutritional supplement (NS) use has increased among the general population, athletes, and fitness club participants and has become a widespread and acceptable behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological factors between NS users and nonusers. A case-control study design was used, whereby participants included 147 NS users (cases) and 147 nonusers (controls) age 18 yr and above who exercised at least 3 d/wk in 24 fitness clubs in Tehran. A self-administered pretested and validated questionnaire was used to collect data. The results showed that on average, NS users were younger (29.8 ± 9.5 yr) than nonusers (35.5 ± 12.2 yr). Logistic-regression analysis showed that NS use was significantly associated with moderate or high physical activity level (PAL), smoking, gender, eating attitude, and age. In conclusion, NS users were more likely to be female, younger, and smokers; to have moderate or high PAL; and to be more prone to eating disorders than nonusers.
Patti L. Williams, Roger G. Sargent, Robert F. Valois, J. Wanzer Drane, Deborah M. Parra-Medina and Larry J. Durstine
This study is an examination of eating behaviors and body image concerns among 587 female collegiate athletes from nine colleges/universities representing 14 different sports. Measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and a questionnaire gathering general demographic information, reasons for dieting and/or using other methods of weight control, as well as information about expressed concerns from others regarding the respondents weight. Three sport groups were hypothesized to be at increased risk: athletes whose performance is subjectively scored; athletes who compete in a sport where a low body weight is considered advantageous; and athletes who must wear body conrevealing clothing. Chi-Square and Logistic Regression analyses revealed no association between these sport groups and the presence of a subclinical eating disorder (SED). Additional analyses determined no statistical association between student-athletes competing at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level (versus Division II or III level) or student-athletes who were scholarship recipients (versus non-scholarship recipients) and the presence of SED. Student-athletes who have heard expressed concerns from others regarding their body weight were significantly more likely to report the presence of SED (p < .0001). Therefore, special care should be taken with all student-athletes when discussing body weight.
Raquel Escobar-Molina, Sonia Rodríguez-Ruiz, Carlos Gutiérrez-García and Emerson Franchini
This study aimed at comparing weight loss methods (WLM) performed near competition by elite judo athletes from different age and gender groups and relating WLM with the prevalence of eating disorders.
144 athletes (66 females and 78 males) from the Spanish judo teams participated in this observational descriptive study grouped into cadets, juniors, and seniors. Data were collected during previous training meetings to international tournaments. The used tools are a basic data questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T), Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T), Restraint Scale (RS), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40). Two-way ANOVAs and chi-square tests were used to compare groups.
Seniors presented higher use of WLM, especially one week before competition compared with juniors. Judoists were more involved in their diets and reduced more weight as they were older. Females were more concerned about their diets, presented higher anxiety, scored higher in the emotion scale, and more eating disorders symptoms, although weight loss was lower. Anxiety and eating disorders symptoms differences were more common in juniors and cadets, respectively, with higher scores in females.
Conclusions and Implications:
Seniors seem to develop more effective strategies to cope with weight loss. Cadet and junior females are more likely to suffer from the psychological-related states associated to weight loss. Implications: (1) Educational programs might help competitors and coaches to adopt and promote healthier weight loss processes, (2) special attention should be paid to female young judoists to detect eating disorders in its early stages, and (3) judo organizations should consider implementing new rules to sanction harmful weight loss practices.