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Hiroshi Takasaki, Yu Okubo and Shun Okuyama

performance can be associated with the magnitude of the JPS. 4 Therefore, interventions to enhance the JPS would be concerns in the area of athletic training and sports science. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) can be a promising intervention, and several studies have investigated this subject

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Munira Abdulwasi, Meena Bhardwaj, Yuka Nakamura, Maha Zawi, Jennifer Price, Paula Harvey and Ananya Tina Banerjee

models assert that there are multiple levels of facilitators that impact an individual’s ability to engage in physical activity, such as interpersonal, intrapersonal, organizational, physical environment, and policy factors. 21 Intrapersonal facilitators include an individual’s biological, behavioral

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Tim Fletcher, Ken Lodewyk, Katie Glover and Sandra Albione

form of professional learning to support teachers in implementing the revised curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of a cohort of H&PE teachers and consultants learning to become instructional coaches who would, in turn, facilitate the professional learning of teachers

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Melissa N. Galea, Steven R. Bray and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators associated with walking for exercise among people who experience intermittent claudication. Fifteen individuals (7 men and 8 women) participated in 3 focus groups that were tape-recorded and content analyzed. A social-cognitive framework was used to categorize barriers and facilitators as those related to the person, to the activity, or to the environment. Variables identified included those specific to intermittent claudication and those common among the general population. Barriers to walking included irregular or graded walking surfaces, uncertainty about the outcome of walking, ambiguity regarding pain, the need to take rest breaks, and the presence of leg pain. Facilitating factors included availability of a resting place, use of cognitive coping strategies, companionship support, and availability of a treadmill-walking program. Findings are interpreted in light of current research on exercise determinants and encourage prospective examinations of the predictive validity of these factors for walking.

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Dan Smith

With the emergence of sport imagery training programs, sport psychologists need to understand the various conditions that have been found to facilitate imagery practice. This manuscript focuses on these conditions including vividness and controllability, practice, attitude and expectation, previous experience, relaxed attention, and internal versus external imagery. The summary synthesizes key points, advocating that these points be stressed in future sport imagery research and programs.

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Pilvikki Heikinaro-Johansson, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French and Heikki Huuhka

The purpose of this research was to develop and test an adapted physical education consultant model to assist regular elementary school classroom teachers to include children with special needs into regular physical education. The consultation model consisted of (a) Level 1, conducting a needs assessment, (b) Level 2, designing/implementing the program, and (c) Level 3, evaluating the program. The model was tested in two communities in Finland using the intensive and the limited consulting approaches. Data collection methods included videotaped observations of teacher and students, interviews, dialogue at interdisciplinary team meetings, and journals. Results are presented as case studies, which describe the process and product over a 2-month period of model implementation. Analysis of data indicate that classroom teachers, paraprofessionals, and students benefited from the consultant model. The adapted physical education consultant model appears to be a viable approach in facilitating the integration of children with special needs.

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Mary Jo MacCracken and Robert E. Stadulis

Dynamic balance performance of young children (ages 4, 6, and 8) was assessed in three social situations: alone (only with tester present); coaction (one other child performing at the same time); and spectators (five other observer children present). Within each age and gender, children (N = 120) were classified as of higher or lower comparative skill. Each balance task performed (walking forward and backward on a line, a narrow beam or a wide beam) was classified as representing easier or more difficult tasks for each child individually. Findings (p ≤ .05) indicated that the facilitation effects of social situations strengthened over age, with spectators producing increments in performance for children of higher skill (especially boys) and decrements in performance for the lower skilled children (both boys and girls). Coaction resulted in positive effects regardless of skill level.

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Neng Wan, Ming Wen, Jessie X. Fan, O. Fahina Tavake-Pasi, Sara McCormick, Kirsten Elliott and Emily Nicolosi

version was approved by all researchers. These procedures identified 7 major themes: current PA level, benefits of PA, PA facilitators, PA barriers, cultural norms related to PA, use of technology, and suitable methods of PA intervention. In addition, a questionnaire was designed to gather information

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Martin Camiré, Tanya Forneris and Pierre Trudel

Coaching for positive youth development (PYD) in the context of high school sport is a complex process given that many factors influence this environment. The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of high school coaches to facilitate PYD from the perspective of administrators, coaches, and athletes. Although stakeholders in general perceive coaches as having the ability to facilitate PYD, scores for coaches were higher than athletes and administrators and scores for athletes were higher than administrators. Furthermore, coaches who participated in coach education perceived themselves as having a greater ability to facilitate PYD compared to coaches with no coach education.

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Graham Jones and Austin Swain

The major purpose of this study was to examine the distinction between “intensity” (i.e., level) and “direction” (i.e., interpretation of level as either debilitative or facilitative) of competitive anxiety symptoms as a function of skill level. Elite (n = 68) and nonelite (n = 65) competitive cricketers completed a modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. The findings showed no difference between the two groups on the intensity of cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms, but elite performers interpreted both anxiety states as being more facilitative to performance than did the nonelite performers. No differences emerged between the groups for self-confidence. Further analyses showed that cricketers in the nonelite group who reported their anxiety as debilitative had higher cognitive anxiety intensity levels than those who reported it as facilitative, but no such differences were evident in the elite group. These findings provide further support for the distinction between intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety symptoms.