understand online gender-based violence targeted at these female athletes in social media spaces adopting a third-wave-feminism and intersectional perspective. The study highlights the presence of vitriol targeted at women athletes surrounding their job role and performance. The online social commentary
Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne
M. Ann Hall
Using my own experience in sport, I explore two themes in this paper. One is that sport and feminism are often seen as incompatible. This means that sport is often overlooked, or at best underestimated, as a site of cultural struggle where gender relations are reproduced and sometimes resisted. The second is that there is a seemingly impervious border within sport feminism between academics and activists, between theory and practice, between the academy and the community, between researchers and the researched. The “Beckwith Belles” are women’s lived experience in sport and the context in which I examine the implication of these two themes.
Emily A. Roper
In this paper, I will briefly describe my ongoing feminist journey and the significance and meaning of aligning myself with feminism. Additionally, I will discuss my feminist perspective, mainly feminist cultural studies, and how this framework informs my sport psychological research and practice. Lastly, I will discuss the potential of a feminist approach for broadening what it means to be a “sport psychologist.”
Ruth A. Chananie-Hill, Jennifer J. Waldron and Natalie K. Umsted
This study examines how women’s flat-track roller derby transcends traditional feminist models of sport and reflects contradictory third-wave feminist ideologies. The authors propose a third-wave feminist model of sport that reflects a mix of contradictory third-wave social justice and (post)feminist ideologies, such as individualistic dynamics of gendered and sexual expression, gender maneuvering, inclusiveness, concern for social justice, commercialization, spectacle, and stealth feminism. Using a qualitative content analysis of the Women’s Flat Track Derby Association league web sites, the authors apply the model to investigate how and to what extent the new derby reflects their model. This analysis yields four interrelated themes: (1) stealth feminism through alternative sport, (2) social justice and inclusiveness, (3) rebelling and reflecting identity performances, and (4) violent action chicks. The study concludes by exploring implications of the third-wave model of sport and women’s flat-track roller derby for the transformation of sport and the empowerment of women.
Martens (1987) and Dewar and Horn (1992) expressed the need for accepting diverse epistemological perspectives in sport psychology. This paper proposes feminism as an alternative approach to sport psychology research. Feminism grew out of dissatisfaction with “science-as-usual” that often overlooks the experiences of females and acknowledges that sport behavior does not occur in a value-free vacuum; male and female athletes are exposed to very different situations and experiences in sport. A reexamination of the knowledge base, with particular attention to the experiences of females, is needed. Because discontentment with logical positivism has led researchers in a variety of fields to adopt a feminist perspective, a brief critique of logical positivism is provided. A feminist paradigm and feminist methodologies are described, showing how they can enhance knowledge in sport psychology. Finally, examples of feminist inquiry in sport psychology are provided.
Diane L. Gill
Feminist sport psychology encompasses many approaches and has many variations. The articles in this special issue reflect that variation but also reflect common themes outlined in this introductory article. The feminist framework for this article begins with bell hooks’ (2000) inclusive, action-oriented definition of feminism as “a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression” (p. viii). The following themes, drawn from feminist theory and sport studies scholarship, provide the supporting structure: (a) gender is relational rather than categorical; (b) gender is inextricably linked with race/ethnicity, class, and other social identities; (c) gender and cultural relations involve power and privilege; and (d) feminism demands action. Gender scholarship in sport psychology is reviewed noting recent moves toward feminist approaches and promising directions that incorporate cultural diversity and relational analyses to move toward feminist practice. The other articles in this issue reflect similar feminist themes and present unique contributions to guide us toward feminist sport psychology.
Lynda M. Nilges
With its diverse coverage of topics from a variety of perspectives, the Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal is a significant resource for those working toward social change and gender empowerment inside and outside the arena of sport and physical activity. This article is a review of the scholarship contained in the Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal over the last five years (1992-1996). Seven broad themes are used to organize this review, (1) The Meaning of Physical Activity, (2) Female Athletes in the Visual and Print Media, (3)Transforming Sport and Physical Activity, (4) Nutrition, Weight, and Body Image, (5) Scientific Foundations of the Active Female, (6) Historical Perspectives of Women in Sport, and (7) “Others.” Suggestions are offered for future research relative to women’s sport and physical activity based on the shift that has occurred in feminism over the last century.
Athena Yiamouyiannis and Kay Hawes
The 2009–10 Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA) data were used to analyze and compare student enrollment, sport participation rates/participants, and scholarship allocation at NCAA Division I, II, and III colleges and their subdivisions from a critical perspective through the lens of feminism. The EADA data included 1,062 NCAA collegiate institutions, with 350 Division I colleges, 209 in Division II, and 420 in Division III. Within Division I, the three subdivisions included I-A (FBS), I-AA (FCS), and I-AAA (without football). For Divisions II and III, findings were reported for colleges with and without football. Of the 6 million students attending NCAA colleges, 54% are female students, while only 43% of sport participants are women, which reflects an 11% gap between female enrollment and sport participation. Scholarship allocation appears to favor women when using the OCR comparison of scholarships to participants; however, the opposite conclusion is drawn based upon additional information.
Christy Greenleaf and Karen Collins
This paper presents our experiences, thoughts, and struggles in working toward understanding, embracing, and implementing feminist perspectives in our scholarship and practice. Mentors, through their encouragement, guidance, and support, have played key roles in our growth as feminist sport and exercise psychology professionals. It is through our work with mentors that we have moved closer toward understanding and identifying with being feminist scholars. In our research, we place women as the central focus of our work, take into account contextual factors, and look toward creating social change. The struggles we have faced as young professionals include countering stereotypes of feminism, integrating feminist methodologies and epistemology into a traditionally logical positivist field, and moving from research findings to creating social change. Looking toward the future, we hope that feminist sport and exercise psychology scholars continue to build a community to share and discuss the issues and struggles of feminist researchers.
Young Sport and Exercise Psychology Feminists Christy Greenleaf * Karen Collins * 12 2001 15 15 4 4 431 431 437 437 10.1123/tsp.15.4.431 The Journey through Feminism: Theory, Research, and Dilemmas from the Field Tamar Z. Semerjian * Jennifer J. Waldron * 12 2001 15 15 4 4 438 438 444 444 10