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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

following exercise-induced muscle damage, with the balance of the literature suggesting some degree of benefit (e.g.,  DiLorenzo et al., 2014 ; Marques et al., 2015 ). These supplements should be taken for a minimum of 2 weeks with 5 g/day of fish oil capsules (providing 3,500-mg eicosapentaenoic acid and

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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

, especially in older adults, are important. Some evidence suggests that fish oil–derived omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) regulate apoptosis in various cells. Omega-3 has attracted much attention in terms of its potential for prevention of cancers, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid

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Ching T. Lye, Swarup Mukherjee and Stephen F. Burns

). Fish-oil esters of plant sterols improve the lipid profile of dyslipidemic subjects more than do fish-oil or sunflower oil esters of plant sterols . The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84 ( 6 ), 1534 – 1542 . PubMed ID: 17158440 doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.6.1534 10.1093/ajcn/84.6.1534 Demonty , I

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Christopher Rosimus

athlete was prescribed 2 × 1,000-mg omega-3 capsules (Healthspan 1,000-mg concentrated Fish Oil providing 200-mg docosahexaenoic acid and 300-mg eicosapentaenoic acid) per day for 6 weeks and to coincide with vitamin D ingestion, to aid its absorption. A daily multivitamin (Healthspan Gold Complete A

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck, JoLynn Leisinger, Mackenzie Tucker and Sarah Hurst

the lower leg, had leg injury within the past 6 months, were regularly taking anti-inflammatory medication or fish oil (3 or more times per week), or had any known contraindications to cryotherapy. This study was approved by the Weber State University (Ogden, UT) institutional review board. All

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

effect of Echinacea on infection incidence or cold symptom severity ( Karsch-Volk et al., 2015 ; Linde et al., 2006 ). Omega-3 PUFAs Found in fish oil. May influence immune function by acting as a fuel, in their role as membrane constituents or by regulating eicosanoid formation (e.g., prostaglandin

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Hanan A. Alfawaz, Soundararajan Krishnaswamy, Latifah Al-Faifi, Halima Ali Bin Atta, Mohammad Al-Shayaa, Saad A. Alghanim and Nasser M. Al-Daghri

) 8 (2) Coenzyme Q10 377 (91) 9 (2) 22 (5) 2 (1) 4 (1) Creatine 306 (72) 53 (12) 46 (11) 3 (1) 16 (4) Fish oil 289 (68) 58 (14) 51 (12) 8 (2) 19 (4) Folic acid 321 (75) 34 (8) 57 (13) 7 (2) 8 (2) Glucose 333 (79) 35 (8) 39 (9) 7 (2) 6 (1) Herbal extracts 338 (80) 24 (6) 45 (11) 6 (1) 11 (2) Iron 301

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Jennifer Ostrowski, Angelina Purchio, Maria Beck and JoLynn Leisinger

sensation in the lower leg, leg injury within the past 6 months, were regularly taking anti-inflammatory medication or fish oil (3 or more times per week), or had any known contraindications to cryotherapy. Subjects were instructed to refrain from exercise prior to each treatment session. All subjects

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems and Darryn S. Willoughby

), 22 – 29 . Hill , A.M. , Buckley , J.D. , Murphy , K.J. , & Howe , P.R. ( 2007 ). Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors . The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85 ( 5 ), 1267 – 1274 . PubMed 10

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Adam D. Osmond, Dean J. Directo, Marcus L. Elam, Gabriela Juache, Vince C. Kreipke, Desiree E. Saralegui, Robert Wildman, Michael Wong and Edward Jo

they reported a condition that would have confounded or contraindicated the protocol and/or the interpretation of the results. In addition, individuals were excluded if they reported the daily use of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or other pain relievers, muscle relaxers, fish oil supplements