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Elizabeth A. Racioppi and Dawn T. Gulick

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Michael F. Joseph, Kathryn Taft, Maria Moskwa and Craig R. Denegar

Study Design:

Systematic literature review.


To assess the efficacy of deep friction massage (DFM) in the treatment of tendinopathy.


Anecdotal evidence supports the efficacy of DFM for the treatment of tendinopathy. An advanced understanding of the etiopathogenesis of tendinopathy and the resultant paradigm shift away from an active inflammatory model has taken place since the popularization of the DFM technique by Cyriax for the treatment of “tendinitis.” However, increasing mechanical load to the tendinopathic tissue, as well as reducing molecular cross-linking during the healing process via transverse massage, offers a plausible explanation for observed responses in light of the contemporary understanding of tendinopathy.

Evidence Acquisition:

The authors surveyed research articles in all languages by searching PubMed, Scopus, Pedro, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library using the terms deep friction massage, deep tissue massage, deep transverse massage, Cyriax, soft tissue mobilization, soft tissue mobilisation, cross friction massage, and transverse friction massage. They included 4 randomized comparison trials, 3 at the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and 1 supraspinatus outlet tendinopathy; 2 nonrandomized comparison trials, both receiving DFM at the ECRB; and 3 prospective noncomparison trials—supraspinatus, ECRB, and Achilles tendons. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were assessed based on PEDro and Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine rating scales.


Nine studies met the inclusion criteria.

Evidence Synthesis:

The heterogeneity of dependent measures did not allow for meta-analysis.


The varied locations, study designs, etiopathogenesis, and outcome tools used to examine the efficacy of DFM make a unified conclusion tenuous. There is some evidence of benefit at the elbow in combination with a Mills manipulation, as well as for supraspinatus tendinopathy in the presence of outlet impingement and along with joint mobilization. The examination of DFM as a single modality of treatment in comparison with other methods and control has not been undertaken, so its isolated efficacy has not been established. Excellent anecdotal evidence remains along with a rationale for its use that fits the current understanding of tendinopathy.

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Dennis E. Anderson, Christopher T. Franck and Michael L. Madigan

The effects of gait speed and step length on the required coefficient of friction (COF) confound the investigation of age-related differences in required COF. The goals of this study were to investigate whether age differences in required COF during self-selected gait persist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length, and to determine the independent effects of speed and step length on required COF. Ten young and 10 older healthy adults performed gait trials under five gait conditions: self-selected, slow and fast speeds without controlling step length, and slow and fast speeds while controlling step length. During self-selected gait, older adults walked with shorter step lengths and exhibited a lower required COF. Older adults also exhibited a lower required COF when walking at a controlled speed without controlling step length. When both age groups walked with the same speed and step length, no age difference in required COF was found. Thus, speed and step length can have a large influence on studies investigating age-related differences in required COF. It was also found that speed and step length have independent and opposite effects on required COF, with step length having a strong positive effect on required COF, and speed having a weaker negative effect.

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Paul Federici and John A. Norwig

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Richard J. Carey

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José María Rodríguez-Lelis, Dagoberto Tolosa Mata, Marciano Vargas-Treviño, José Navarro-Torres, Gilberto Piña-Piña and Arturo Abundez-Pliego

In the present work, based on high frequency wavelet analysis of dynamic signals of mechanical systems, a multiple-resolution wavelet analysis is carried out, to the signal obtained from an accelerometer mounted on the structure of a hip prosthesis wearing test device. The prostheses employed had a femoral head made of aluminum oxide and the acetabular cup of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. The first two aluminum oxide femoral heads were coated with diamond-like carbon and a third one was tested without coating and used as a reference. The coating was carried out by triboadhesion. Tests results showed that maximum vibration amplitude reached after 32 hr for the coated prostheses was 0.2 g. The noncoated prosthesis amplitude presented was 0.75 g in the same time interval. These values were attributed to wear damage on the surface of the prostheses, indicating that thin film DLC coating caused an increase of stiffness on the surface and therefore an increase in wear resistance approximately of 314%.

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Christopher A. Dawson, Richard L. Bancells, Brian Ebel, Wilma F. Bergfeld and Edward G. Mcfarland

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Matt R. Cross, Farhan Tinwala, Seth Lenetsky, Scott R. Brown, Matt Brughelli, Jean-Benoit Morin and Pierre Samozino

computation of horizontal force in resisted sprinting, and to critically discuss the impact of methodological approach on training applicability. Interplay of Mechanics During Sprinting Acceleration During sprinting acceleration, the force produced by muscle aims to overcome inertia and any friction forces

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Sauli Savolainen and Reijo Visuri

In this review we analyze competition sports, particularly downhill speed skiing and cross-country skiing, in terms of physical performance. The effects of various forces/parameters on athletic performance are summarized, and metabolic energy cost and mechanical power output are reviewed. The primary factors contributing to energy loss in the athlete are drag, friction between athlete and ground, and gravitational force (i.e., the movement of body segments in the gravitational field). According to previous reports the latter is the most significant factor. However, estimated levels of energy expenditure, occurring as a direct result of gravitational force, vary considerably depending on the method used in the analysis. We also demonstrate the importance of changes in friction and drag in athletic performance, using practical examples from skiing.

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Abderrehmane Rahmani, Alain Belli, Tomasz Kostka, Georges Dalleau, Marc Bonnefoy and Jean-Rene Lacour

This paper describes the application of the inverse dynamic method developed by Bosco and colleagues for measuring the mechanical properties of knee extensor muscles under ballistic conditions. Twenty elderly men performed a series of maximal ballistic leg extensions at different loads. Accurate measurements of friction and inertial effects during the movement were used to calculate the torque and power produced during extension. The error of the results was 6.2–45.3% when the friction and inertial effects were neglected. The torque-angular velocity relationships were linear (r = 0.92 to 0.99, p < .001). The peak measurements obtained were in agreement with published isokinetic values. This new ergometer allows assessment of movements similar to those performed in day-to-day activities and can be used. without training, by elderly or disabled subjects.