Attempts at investigating female sports reporters’ credibility and persuasiveness from the audience’s perspective are limited and outdated. This study, grounded in social identity theory, fills the gap in media literature. A quasi-experiment tested respondents’ perceptions of male and female sports reporters’ credibility and persuasiveness as a function of salient gender identity and reporter and athlete sex. Respondents’ sports fandom, frequency of sports-media usage, and general perceptions of news-media credibility also were examined. Results of a MANOVA indicated no significant differences in respondents’ perceptions of a male and female reporter, even when controlling for respondent gender; however, sports fandom and general perceptions of news-media credibility did have a significant impact on perceptions.
Elizabeth A. Baiocchi-Wagner and Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz
Jennifer K. Wesely
Bodybuilding is a body technology that involves the building of muscle through hard work lifting weights. Although technologies like bodybuilding can reify dominant constructions of gender. I suggest that bodybuilding also reflects the attempts of participants to be active agents in the choices they make about their bodies. This article addresses the body as a work in progress and uses in-depth interviews with male and female bodybuilders to examine the ways that gender identity is consistently negotiated as participants reshape their bodies. This ongoing identity negotiation is reflected in the ways participants assess various body technologies, like bodybuilding, muscle-enhancing drugs, and cosmetic surgery as natural or unnatural. Based on the responses, I explore the idea of a natural/unnatural continuum as a framework for understanding the ways that the participants fluctuate in their assessments of hugely built and other technologized bodies.
Timothy Jon Curry and Otmar Weiss
The aim of this study is to compare competition, fitness, and social motivation for sport participation between American college athletes and Austrian student sport club members. Our hypotheses are drawn from symbolic interactionist theory, and we define sport motivation as the reasons that people give for participating in sport. The respondents are 301 University of Vienna student members of Austrian sport clubs and 397 college athletes drawn from three schools in Ohio. The results indicate (a) statistically significant main effects for ANOVA comparisons between competition and fitness motivation and the factors of gender and country, (b) a statistically significant two-way interaction between social motivation and gender and country, and (c) statistically significant Pearson product moment correlations between competition and fitness motives and the involvement of self in the sport role. Thus, we conclude that motivation for sport participation is likely to be influenced by the values of the sport organization as well as the sport and gender identities of the participant.
John Harris and Ben Clayton
This paper examines media representations of Welsh rugby player Gavin Henson, arguing that through analysis of media discourses we can trace shifting shapes of masculinities in the (post)modern era of sport. Contradiction and inconsistencies are prevalent in the narratives that accompany the equally conflicting images of Henson, who both conforms to and challenges traditional rugby playing masculinities. The paper examines articles from Welsh and British newspapers from a critical (pro)feminist perspective, arguing that Henson transcends boundaries in a way that no rugby player has ever done before and analyzes his place as the first metrosexual rugby star. The study also examines the somewhat problematic concept of metrosexuality within critical (pro)feminist theories of sport and attempts to conceptualize the position and significance of the term. This work brings images of the continual, dialectic process of the (re)defining of gender identities to the study of masculinities, and sport masculinities in particular.
Jenny Meggs, Mark Chen and Danielle Mounfield
Research has identified a correlation between prenatal markers of testosterone (2D4D) and sport performance. This relationship is thought to be explained by several important psychophysiological variables such as physical fitness and mental toughness. The current study sought to add to this body of research by examining the differences between high and low 2D4D, in measures of gender identity (Bem Sex Role Inventory) and mental toughness (the 48-item version of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire). A sample of 116 recreational (n = 59) and competitive netballers (n = 57) completed the psychological measures and provided right-hand scans from which 2D4D ratio measures were drawn. The key results included a large effect of low digit ratio on emotional control, life control, and interpersonal confidence. These findings suggest that 2D4D could provide a marker for sporting potential and mental toughness in female sport participants. However, future research may wish to establish the relative contribution of prenatal factors (e.g., 2D4D) and socialization factors (e.g., involvement in a sporting context) on sporting ability and related psychological variables.
Tamar Z. Semerjian and Jodi H. Cohen
Viviane K. Namaste (2000) argues that trans-individuals have been culturally erased and rendered invisible. She contends that academics should begin to explore the realities of transgender individuals’ lives. Transgender identified athletes have begun to garner more media attention in recent years, particularly with the 2004 International Olympic Committee’s ruling allowing transgender athletes to participate in the Olympics. Despite this increasing media attention, there is a considerable lack of academic work focusing on the experiences of transgender athletes, as well as a paucity of any serious theoretical consideration of these experiences. The purpose of this paper is to present trans athletes’ narratives of their sport participation, with attention to how gender identity and performance was or was not a part of this participation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four trans identified athletes. The narratives of these athletes portray a way of thinking about gender as a category that is transmutable, unstable, and constantly written and rewritten through embodied performances. Queer theory will serve as the theoretical perspective used to analyze these narratives.
Bethany Alice Jones, Emma Haycraft, Walter Pierre Bouman and Jon Arcelus
between their sex assigned at birth and their gender identity. Transgender women are those assigned male at birth but who identify as female. Transgender men are those assigned female at birth but who identify as male. Some people may identify outside the binary gender system (eg, gender neutral
; Lucas-Carr & Krane, 2011 ). Gender refers to social and cultural processes ascribed to a body ( Gilbert et al., 2018 ), and is reflected in words like “feminine” and “boyish” ( Willis & Jozkowski, 2018 ). Gender identity can be understood as an individual’s internal sense of the degree to which they are
children, gay and transgender individuals may still be fired from their jobs for their sexual and/or gender identity, and many queer people report substandard health care. Since 2013, at least sixteen U.S. states have considered “bathroom bills” that would restrict the rights of transgender people from
Zachary McCarver, Shelby Anderson, Justine Vosloo and Sebastian Harenberg
.e., demographics such as age, gender identity, education level, occupation status, practicing country, racial background, sexual orientation, and disability status) was used. One item inquired about experiences of discrimination (“Have you experienced any form of discrimination in the field of sport and exercise