examined differences in exercise performance, comparing glucose and maltodextrin MR with artificial sweeteners in elite cyclists. These investigators found that cycle time-trial performance times were significantly improved when either 6.4% glucose or maltodextrin rinse was used prior to exercise. During
Stephen P. Bailey, Julie Hibbard, Darrin La Forge, Madison Mitchell, Bart Roelands, G. Keith Harris and Stephen Folger
Edwin Chong, Kym J. Guelfi and Paul A. Fournier
This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p < .05). Mean power output during the sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p < .05) and also tended to be higher than the water trial (p = .075). Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.
Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa
guidelines during prolonged endurance exercise (>2.5 hr) suggest that up to 90 g/hr be consumed by combining glucose and/or its polymers with fructose ( Thomas et al., 2016 ). This approach is recommended to maximize exogenous carbohydrate provision, while aiming to minimize exercise
Darren Triplett, J. Andrew Doyle, Jeffrey C. Rupp and Dan Benardot
A number of recent research studies have demonstrated that providing glucose and fructose together in a beverage consumed during exercise results in significantly higher oxidation rates of exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) than consuming glucose alone. However, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the increased exogenous CHO oxidation improves endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consuming a beverage containing glucose and fructose (GF) would result in improved cycling performance compared with an isocaloric glucose-only beverage (G). Nine male competitive cyclists (32.6 ± 5.8 years, peak oxygen uptake 61.5 ± 7.9 ml · kg-1 · min-1) completed a familiarization trial and then 2 simulated 100-km cycling time trials on an electronically braked Lode cycle ergometer separated by 5–7 d. During the randomly ordered experimental trials, participants received 36 g of CHO of either G or GF in 250 ml of water every 15 min. All 9 participants completed the 100-km time trial significantly faster when they received the GF beverage than with G (204.0 ± 23.7 vs. 220.6 ± 36.6 min; p = .023). There was no difference at any time point between trials for blood glucose or for blood lactate. Total CHO oxidation increased significantly from rest during exercise but was not statistically significant between the GF and G trials, although there was a trend for CHO oxidation to be higher with GF in the latter stages of the time trial. Consumption of a CHO beverage containing glucose and fructose results in improved 100-km cycling performance compared with an isocaloric glucose-only beverage.
James A. Lang, Carl V. Gisolfi and G. Patrick Lambert
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise intensity on active and passive intestinal glucose absorption. Eight trained runners (age = 23 ± 2 y; VO2max = 62.1 ± 5.8 mL · kg−1 · min−1) performed a 1 h resting experiment and three 1 h treadmill experiments at 30, 50, or 70% VO2max in a thermoneutral environment. Immediately prior to each experiment, euhydrated subjects ingested a solution containing two non-metabolizable glucose analogs, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3MG; actively absorbed; 5 g) and D-xylose (passively absorbed; 5 g). During the following 5 h, all urine was collected and the amount of 3MG and D-xylose in the urine was determined. Using repeated measures ANOVA, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in urinary excretion of each carbohydrate was observed at 70% VO2max compared to the other intensities suggesting that both active and passive intestinal absorption of glucose may be reduced during prolonged running at this intensity.
Marie Dunford and Charlotte Saunders
The determination of blood glucose response to various carbohydrate foods may help athletes in their choice of preexercise feedings. This case study documented the postprandial glycemic responses of three male endurance athletes at rest after ingestion of 50-gram portions of three carbohydrate foods: graham crackers, orange juice, and oatmeal. Plasma glucose response differed in each subject for each test food. Two of the three subjects exhibited similar glycemic responses, but not to the same test food. Future studies will clarify the relationship between carbohydrate ingestion and postprandial glucose response.
Mark A. Tarnopolsky, Kerry Dyson, Stephanie A. Atkinson, Duncan MacDougall and Cynthia Cupido
We studied the effects of different CHO supplements on exercise metabolism (1 hr at 75%
Kevin R. Short, Melinda Sheffield-Moore and David L. Costill
This investigation was undertaken to determine whether consuming several small feedings of preexercise carbohydrate (CHO), rather than a single bolus, would affect blood glucose and insulin responses during rest and exercise. Eight trained cyclists ingested 22.5,45, or 75 total g maltodextrin and dextrose dissolved in 473 ml of water or an equal volume of placebo (PL). Drinks were divided into four portions and consumed at 15-min intervals in the hour before a 120-min ride at 66%
Hedy C. Reynolds, Loren Cordain, Mary A. Harris and Sheri Linnell
Thirteen trained runners were studied to determine whether postexercise glucose ingestion contributes to electrocardiogram (ECG) alterations by enhancing decreases in serum potassium (K+) concentrations. For the two randomly ordered trials, subjects ingested a 100 g (25% w/v glucose polymer) drink, either alone or with the addition of 3 g of potassium chloride (KCI), within 15 min following a 90-min run. ECG parameters, serum
Michael C. Riddell, Oded Bar-Or, Beatriz V. Ayub, Randolph E. Calvert and George J.F. Heigenhauser
There are currently no guidelines regarding the carbohydrate (CHO) dosage required to prevent exercise-induced hypoglycemia in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). To prevent hypoglycemia by matching glucose ingestion with total-CHO utilization, 20 adolescents with IDDM attended 2 trials: control (CT; drinking water) and glucose (GT; drinking 6-8% glucose). Participants performed 60 min of moderate-intensity cycling 100 min after insulin injection and breakfast. CT's total-CHO utilization during exercise was determined using indirect calorimetry. In GT, participants ingested glucose in the amount equal to total CHO utilization in the CT. A total of 9 participants had BG <4.0 mmol/L in CT compared to 3 in GT (p < .05). In conclusion, glucose ingestion equal to total-CHO utilization attenuates the drop in blood glucose and reduces the likelihood of hypoglycemia during exercise in adolescents with IDDM.