In order to improve motor performance, mental imagery procedures have evolved over the years with nondisabled subjects. Studies researching the concept of using mental imagery with special populations (Surburg, & Stumpner, 1987; Surburg, 1991; Surburg, Porretta, & Sutlive, 1995) are very few in number. This study examined the efficacy of using mental imagery in developing skill on a motorically oriented task (pursuit rotor) and a cognitively oriented task (peg board) on middle school students with mild mental disabilities (MMD). Thirty subjects were assigned randomly to a physical, imagery, or no-practice control group to perform either a peg board or pursuit rotor task. For each motor task, there was a pretest followed by appropriate treatment regime and a posttest session. The dependent variables were the number of pegs placed in appropriate order for the peg board task and time on target for the pursuit rotor task. Results were that imagery practice enhanced the motor performance of children with MMD on both the peg board (cognitively oriented task) and pursuit rotor (motorically oriented task).
Doris Pogue Screws and Paul R. Surburg
Pedro Gómez-Carmona, Ismael Fernández-Cuevas, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, Javier Arnaiz-Lastras and Archit Navandar
Context: Infrared thermography has been used to detect skeletal muscle overload and fatigue in athletes, but its use in injury prevention in professional soccer has not been studied to date. Objectives: To establish a novel injury prevention program based on infrared thermography and to determine its influence on the injury incidence in professional soccer players in the preseason. Design: A cross-sectional, prospective study design was used to compare a conventional injury prevention program (CPP) applied over the first preseason and an infrared thermography injury prevention program (IRTPP) carried out in the following preseason. Setting: Soccer training ground. Participants: Twenty-four players belonging to a first division soccer team from Spain. Main Outcome Measures: Injury incidences of each player were recorded according to the Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (version 10.0) convention to determine the injury classification, location, and type. Results: The incidence of injuries decreased from 15 injuries in the CPP preseason (0.63 [0.77] injuries per player) to 6 injuries in the second preseason when the IRTPP was applied (0.25 [0.53] injuries per player). The days of absence due to injuries also decreased from the CPP preseason (156 d, 10.4 [11.0] d per injury) to the IRTPP preseason (14 d, 2.3 [2.8] d per injury). The injury severity also decreased from the first preseason to the second preseason, and fewer musculoskeletal injuries in the thigh, hip, and groin were reported. Conclusions: The implementation of an IRTPP can reduce the presence of injuries by identifying players potentially at risk and as a result, reducing the injury severity and days lost as a consequence.
To explore the effectiveness of psychological interventions for a sample of competitive athletes with long-term injuries.
Modified 2-group, pretreatment and posttreatment (repeated measure).
58 patients, 14 in the experimental group and 44 in the control group.
Three intervention strategies: stress management and cognitive control, goal-setting skills, and relaxation/guided imagery.
Main Outcome Measure:
Mood level was used as the outcome variable.
The experimental group had a higher overall mood level at the midpoint and end of rehabilitation and were also feeling more ready for competition than the control group was, both as rated by themselves and by the treating physiotherapist The only strategy to show statistical differences was relaxation/guided imagery.
The results of this study support the idea that a short-term intervention has the potential to elevate mood levels in competitive athletes with long-term injuries.
Vellapandian Ponnusamy, Michelle Guerrero and Jeffrey J. Martin
The quintessential goal of most sport psychology consultants is to teach athletes how to achieve optimal performance in any given circumstance. This is often accomplished through the implementation of a psychological skills training (PST) program wherein a set of psychological strategies (e.g., imagery
Carrie B. Scherzer, Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, Albert J. Petitpas, Joseph H. Sklar, Mark H. Pohlman, Robert J. Krushell and Terry D. Ditmar
To examine the relationship between self-reported use of psychological skills and rehabilitation adherence.
Prospective correlational design.
Outpatient physical-therapy clinic specializing in sports medicine.
Fifty-four patients (17 women and 37 men) undergoing rehabilitation after anterior-cruciate-ligament reconstruction.
Main Outcome Measures:
An abbreviated version of the Sports Injury Survey (Ievleva & Orlick, 1991) was administered approximately 5 weeks after surgery to assess use of goal setting, imagery, and positive self-talk. Four adherence measures were obtained during the remainder of rehabilitation: attendance at rehabilitation sessions, practitioner ratings of patient adherence at rehabilitation sessions, patient self-reports of home exercise completion, and patient self-reports of home cryotherapy completion.
Goal setting was positively associated with home exercise completion and practitioner adherence ratings. Positive self-talk was positively correlated with home exercise completion.
Use of certain psychological skills might contribute to better adherence to sport-injury rehabilitation protocols.
Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Damien Clement, Jennifer J. Hamson-Utley, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Sae-Mi Lee, Cindra Kamphoff, Taru Lintunen, Brian Hemmings and Scott B. Martin
Existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research support the applicability and usefulness of integrating mental skills throughout sport injury rehabilitation.
To determine what, if any, mental skills athletes use during injury rehabilitation, and by who these skills were taught. Cross-cultural differences were also examined.
College athletes from 5 universities in the United States and a mixture of collegiate, professional, and recreational club athletes from the United Kingdom and Finland were recruited for this study.
A total of 1283 athletes from the United States, United Kingdom, and Finland, who participated in diverse sports at varying competitive levels took part in this study.
Main Outcome Measures:
As part of a larger study on athletes’ expectations of injury rehabilitation, participants were asked a series of open-ended and closed-ended questions concerning their use of mental skills during injury rehabilitation.
Over half (64.0%) of the sample reported previous experience with athletic training, while 27.0% indicated that they used mental skills during injury rehabilitation. The top 3 mental skills reported were goal setting, positive self-talk/positive thoughts, and imagery. Of those athletes that used mental skills, 71.6% indicated that they felt mental skills helped them to rehabilitate faster. A greater proportion of athletes from the United States (33.4%) reported that they used mental skills during rehabilitation compared with athletes from the United Kingdom (23.4%) and Finland (20.3%). A small portion (27.6%) of the participants indicated that their sports medicine professional had taught them how to use mental skills; only 3% were taught mental skills by a sport psychologist.
The low number of athletes who reported using mental skills during rehabilitation is discouraging, but not surprising given research findings that mental skills are underutilized by injured athletes in the 3 countries examined. More effort should be focused on educating and training athletes, coaches, and sports medicine professionals on the effectiveness of mental training in the injury rehabilitation context.
Aaron England, Timothy Brusseau, Ryan Burns, Dirk Koester, Maria Newton, Matthew Thiese and Benjamin Chase
, undergo rapid maturation during childhood and adolescence ( Choudhury, Charman, Bird, & Blakemore, 2007 ; Toga, Thompson, & Sowell, 2006 ). These changes may affect movements and representations of movement, which leaves the utility of SDA-M as a tool for motor task assessment and motor imagery in an
Jumpei Mizuno, Masashi Kawamura and Minoru Hoshiyama
OB condition in the present study was not a simple observation but involved watching with effort to memorize the movement to perform it after the movie. Such observation with effort to memorize the movement could activate similar neural processes to those activated in movement imagery, with a similar
Timothy A. Kulpa, Jamie Mansell, Anne Russ and Ryan Tierney
–18) who were symptomatic for more than 4 weeks following SRC. All patients performed light aerobic exercise, general coordination exercises tailored to activity/sport, mental imagery, and stress/anxiety reduction strategies and a home-based program. 16 subjects (11 male, 5 female; ages 10–17) who were