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Hannah Butler-Coyne, Vaithehy Shanmuganathan-Felton and Jamie Taylor

wellbeing imbalance” including “contextual,” “spectrum of imbalance,” “disorganised thoughts,” “negative sense of self,” “personal & professional relationship difficulties” and “physical health difficulties.” Life experiences, upbringing and childhood influences were identified as significant “ contextual

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Seong-won Han, Andrew Sawatsky, Azim Jinha and Walter Herzog

frequent occurrence and clinical importance of patellofemoral pain, its etiology remains unclear. A frequently implicated cause for patellofemoral pain is quadriceps muscle weakness and imbalance, specifically weakness of the vastus medialis (VM). 16 – 18 The VM is thought to be a medial stabilizer of the

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Jeffrey G. Williams, Lauryn Darnall and Conrad Schumann

with motion at adjacent body regions. For example, do baseball players at all skill levels develop changes in TLR ROM from participating in the sport? Are changes in TLR ROM related to alterations in rotational motion at the hip and/or shoulder? Is imbalance in TLR pathological? If so, how much TLR

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Ramón Marcote-Pequeño, Amador García-Ramos, Víctor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Jorge M. González-Hernández, Miguel Ángel Gómez and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

Interestingly, it has been shown that for each individual there exists an optimal combination of F 0 and V 0 (ie, FV slope) that allows to maximize ballistic performance for a same value of P max 19 , 20 and, consequently, specific training programs can be prescribed to reduce the FV imbalance. 13

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Petter Fagerberg

immunity ( Hagmar et al., 2008 ; Lancaster et al., 2005 ). Observational studies show that skeletal demineralization and hormonal imbalances are also prevalent among males, for example, male endurance athletes and athletes who strive for leanness ( Dolan et al., 2012 ; Guillaume et al., 2012 ; Hackney

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Geoff Lovell and Mike Lauder


Anecdotal evidence suggests a relationship between strength imbalances and injury incidence.


To examine the relationship between bilateral strength imbalance and incidence of injury.

Participants and Design:

Thirty national- or international-standard flatwater kayakers were classified as noninjured, trunk injured, or upper-limb injured based on the number of days lost from training over the last 6 months. Bilateral strength imbalance was measured using a kayak ergometer, producing data for peak force and force impulse for each side of each stroke. Bilateral strength imbalance was then compared between the noninjured, trunk-injured, and upper-limb-injured groups by means of 2 one-way ANOVAs. No participants reported training days lost through lower-limb injury.


A significantly elevated bilateral peak-force strength imbalance was observed between the upper-limb-injured and the noninjured groups.


These data support the existence of a relationship between strength imbalance and incidence of injury.

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Angélica Ginés-Díaz, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Antonio Cejudo, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento and Pilar Sainz de Baranda

high volume of training is more likely to produce a spinal deformity. 5 Those aforementioned movement patterns and training loads can generate postural alterations that give rise to painful actions, muscular imbalances, and the development of compensatory movement patterns, 7 which directly damage

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Amy Baker, Mary A. Hums, Yoseph Mamo and Damon P.S. Andrew

emerging field. Furthermore, sport management faculty has a gender imbalance, with far more male faculty employed than female faculty, which contributes to the uniqueness of the context. Jones, Brooks, and Mak ( 2008 ) found that 66% of sport management programs had fewer than 40% female faculty members

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Jamie Cleland, Stacey Pope and John Williams

complicit practices of sexism and subordination toward women in men’s football. The second addresses the extent to which women are regarded as “authentic” fans and illustrates the gender inequalities and power imbalances they face in their practice of fandom in men’s professional football in the United

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Bin Chen, Yichao Zhao, Xianxin Cao, Guojiong Hu, Lincoln B. Chen and Wenxin Niu

acromioclavicular joint, muscular imbalance of the shoulder rotators and related secondary impingement syndrome are often seen in athletes involved in overhead sports. 3 – 6 Although various muscles contribute to the dynamic stability of the shoulder, a lack of shoulder balance of the external (infraspinatus and