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Lorenzo Lolli, Alan M. Batterham, Gregory MacMillan, Warren Gregson and Greg Atkinson

supplemented by conventional Pearson correlation coefficients, despite there being fewer than 30 participants in each sample. This mismatch between sample size and the appropriate statistical model violates the assumption of independence of observations and leads to both biased and overly precise statistical

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Lauriece L. Zittel and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an integrated physical education setting on the motor performance of preschool children with developmental delays. Subjects participated in segregated and integrated physical education classes and were observed practicing locomotor and object control skills. The quality of performance was analyzed to determine the number of critical elements present and the level of teacher or peer prompt required to initiate and complete each performance. A single-subject reversal design (A-B-A-B) was used. Four children with developmental delays were filmed within an 8-week school schedule while practicing two fundamental gross motor skills during segregated and integrated conditions. The results provide evidence that children with developmental delays are able to maintain their level of gross motor skill and independence within an integrated physical education setting. Although day-to-day variability was calculated for each subject, overall skill level remained stable and level of independence was not compromised in the integrated setting.

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Donna L. Goodwin

The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of help in physical education as perceived by students with physical disabilities. The experiences of early, middle, and late elementary school aged students (n = 12) were captured using the phenomenological methods of individual and focus group interviews, field notes, and visual artifacts. The thematic analysis revealed that interactions were perceived as self-supporting or self-threatening. Self-supporting behaviors were instrumental, caring, or consensual in form, while self-threatening behaviors resulted in a loss of independence, concerns for self-esteem, or restricted participation. Participant responses to the helping behaviors became more complex with age. Instrumental and caring assistance emerged across all groups as did loss of independence and concerns for self-esteem. The older participants experienced restricted participation and consensual help. The implications of helping behavior on motivation and dependency states are discussed within the framework of threat to self-esteem theory.

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Margaret E. Whitehead, Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Niek Pot

value in promoting self-efficacy and self-confidence is underwritten by psychologists, who also champion the important role of self-esteem in developing characteristics such as independence and creativity ( Chen, 2015 ). In the sphere of sociocultural studies, it is suggested that physical literacy can

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Ali Brian, An De Meester, Aija Klavina, J. Megan Irwin, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Lauren J. Lieberman

surrounding physical activity and choosing to be active for enjoyment is a facet of independence. Independence is a chief outcome desired for individuals with VI ( Lieberman, Ponchillia, & Ponchillia, 2013 ). Thus, any medium that can promote perceived motor competence and competence satisfaction regarding

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Pedro Figueiredo, George P. Nassis and João Brito

or difference (0.2 × between-subject SD). Within-subject correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationships between sIgA and load parameters, accounting for the lack of independence among the repeated measurements by removing the variation between subjects. 8 The magnitude of the

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Tshepang Tshube and Stephanie J. Hanrahan

schedule every five years since the country’s independence in 1966 ( Jefferis & Nemaorani, 2013 ). Botswana has had four democratically elected presidents, all from the ruling Botswana Democratic Party. At independence, Botswana was ranked amongst the poorest countries in Africa with a per capita gross

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Lorraine Cale and Jo Harris

understanding, and arguably to all good teaching, are the inclusion and empowerment of all pupils, and their subsequent shift with enhanced knowledge and understanding from dependence on the teacher to independence. In considering approaches to physical literacy development, Almond and Myers ( 2017 ) argue that

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Karen Lux Gaudreault, Kelly L. Simonton and Angela Simonton

integrating groups of graduate students who may have different goals for or research foci within their degree programs ( Tom, 1999 ). Relying on one another, but developing independence Although all graduate students benefit from developing peer relationships that support and sustain their development

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Aubrey Newland, Maria Newton, E. Whitney G. Moore and W. Eric Legg

nested within teams) players have shared experiences, thus violating the assumption of independence of observations. This study addresses this gap through the use of multilevel modelling (MLM) which accounts for the nesting of players within teams. Present Study Two approaches to PYD outcomes in sport