intervention ( Biddle & Batterham, 2015 ) is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). HIIT typically involves repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with periods of low-intensity recovery or rest ( Shepherd et al., 2015 ). HIIT, as an intervention approach for previously inactive adults, has
Florence-Emilie Kinnafick, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Sam O. Shepherd, Oliver J. Wilson, Anton J.M. Wagenmakers and Christopher S. Shaw
Bianca Fernandes, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Fernanda Zane Arthuso, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Gabriel Felipe Moretto, Luis Felipe Itikawa Imaizumi, Awassi Yophiwa Ngomane, Guilherme Veiga Guimarães and Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac
capacity, and walking ability. 15 – 18 However, little is known about the effects of physical exercise on cardiovascular autonomic function and its related variables in individuals with PD. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a time-efficient strategy for improving several functional
Carolina Menezes Fiorelli, Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, Lucas Simieli, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Bianca Fernandes, Gustavo Christofoletti and Fabio Augusto Barbieri
effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus continuous moderate-intensity training (MICT) on cognitive function (attention, working memory, immediate and late memory, and visuomotor skills) in people with PD. We hypothesized that acute aerobic exercise would improve cognitive function
Assumpta Ensenyat, Gemma Espigares-Tribo, Leonardo Machado-Da-Silva, Xenia Sinfreu-Bergués and Alfonso Blanco
However, there has been growing interest in the application of high-intensity interval training, particularly aerobic interval training (AIT), in health care settings. Higher intensity physical activity has been reported to offer greater benefits. 3 , 7 , 8 Several studies analyzing the effects of AIT on
Andrea Di Blasio, Pascal Izzicupo, Emanuele D’Angelo, Sandra Melanzi, Ines Bucci, Sabina Gallina, Angela Di Baldassarre and Giorgio Napolitano
High-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) has been reported to be more effective than continuous aerobic training (CoAT) to improve metabolic health. The aim of our study was to investigate whether moderate-intensity AIT is more effective than CoAT on metabolic health when applied to a walking training program.
Thirty-two postmenopausal women (55.37 ± 3.46 years) were investigated for body composition, plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-AD, aerobic fitness, dietary habits, and spontaneous physical activity, and randomly assigned to one of two different walking training programs: CoAT or AIT.
CoAT and AIT elicited the same physiological benefits, including: reduction of plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD, and increase of plasma HDL-C, adiponectin, and aerobic fitness.
An AIT scheme as part of an outdoor walking training program elicits the same physiological adaptations as a CoAT scheme, probably because walking does not promote exercise intensities that elicit greater effects.
Jill M. Slade, Hector De Los Santos-Posadas and M. Elaine Cress
This study examined the change in 15K running performance for master runners over 21 years (1978–1998). Official times were collected for 60 male runners from the same running event. Trends in running performance were analyzed with several models (linear, polynomial, and segmented-line). A self-report questionnaire was used to quantify training and to characterize runners. Peak age of running performance was indirectly estimated at 33 years using a second-degree polynomial. The performance trend was also associated with an inflection point at age 41 directly estimated from a nonlinear, segmented, mixed-effects model (95% confidence interval: 38.77–42.44). After age 41, master runners ran nearly 1 min slower each year. Besides age, other parameters that influenced performance over time included type of training (interval training) and body weight. These data might be among the first to describe the trend in running performance for a group of master athletes, most of whom were noncompetitive runners.
Bonnie G. Berger, Robert W. Motl, Brian D. Butki, David T. Martin, John G. Wilkinson and David R. Owen
This study examined changes in mood and performance in response to high-intensity, short-duration overtraining and a subsequent taper. Pursuit cyclists (N = 8) at the United States Olympic Training Center completed the POMS and simulated 4-km pursuit performance tests throughout a six-week period. The six-week period included a baseline week, three weeks of overtraining that consisted primarily of high-intensity interval training, and a two-week taper. Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) scores displayed a quadratic polynomial effect across the three weeks of overtraining (p < .01), with the highest TMD scores occurring in the second week. Average TMD scores were lower during the taper than at baseline (p < .02) and lower at taper than overtraining (p < .0005). Cycling performance (pursuit time and average power output) improved during the three weeks of overtraining; additional improvements were observed during the taper. There were no significant correlations between TMD and performance. However, pursuit time, average power output, and mood disturbance scores were at optimal levels throughout the taper period. These findings suggest that high-intensity, short-duration overtraining may not result in an overtraining syndrome in 4-km pursuit cyclists.
David T. Martin, Mark B. Andersen and Ward Gates
This study examined whether the Profile of Mood States questionnaire (POMS) is a useful tool for monitoring training stress in cycling athletes. Participants (n = 11) completed the POMS weekly during six weeks of high-intensity interval cycling and a one-week taper. Cycling performance improved over the first three weeks of training, plateaued during Weeks 4 and 5, decreased slightly following Week 6, and then significantly increased during the one-week taper. Neither the high-intensity interval training nor the one-week taper significantly affected total mood or specific mood states. POMS data from two cyclists who did not show improved performance capabilities during the taper (overtraining) were not distinctly unique when compared to cyclists who did improve. Also, one cyclist, who on some days had the highest total mood disturbance, responded well to the taper and produced his best personal effort during this time period. These findings raise questions about the usefulness of POMS to distinguish, at an individual level, between periods of productive and counterproductive high-intensity training.
Erik A. Willis, Amanda N. Szabo-Reed, Lauren T. Ptomey, Jeffery J. Honas, Felicia L. Steger, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly
exercise include lack of time and interest in commonly prescribed activities (eg, brisk walking/running), which are perceived as repetitive and boring. 8 – 11 With the intention of reducing the time commitment associated with exercise, short-duration high-intensity sprint and interval training (HIIT
Declan J. Ryan, Jorgen A. Wullems, Georgina K. Stebbings, Christopher I. Morse, Claire E. Stewart and Gladys L. Onambele-Pearson
Substitution of Standing with sMVPA [Figure 1 ; 1.31 mm (0.11 to 2.51)] would increase popliteal artery diameter and vice versa [Figure 1 ; −1.52 mm (−2.83 to −0.22)]. This result is clinically relevant as an 8-week interval training program increased popliteal artery diameter by 0.14 mm per hour of training