professionals 10 and for public health in general. Many intervention studies aimed at increasing PA focus primarily on health education (HE; informing people the benefits from and how to perform PA) and awareness enhancement, some of which are ineffective. 11 One study in British adults found that a HE
Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq and Yori Gidron
Melanie Vetter, Helen O’Connor, Nicholas O’Dwyer and Rhonda Orr
concentration is attractive to educators. Although systematic reviews evaluating evidence in this area are unable to confirm a clear benefit of physical activity or fitness on scholastic performance, there is no evidence that it hinders achievement, even in intervention studies where some classroom time has
Humberto José Gomes Silva, Lars Bo Andersen, Mara Cristina Lofrano-Prado, Mauro V.G. Barros, Ismael Fortes Freitas Jr., James Hill and Wagner Luiz do Prado
It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity (HIT) vs. low-intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents.
Forty-three obese adolescents (age: 15.7 ± 1.3 years, BMI: 34.3 ± 4.1kg/m2) participated this study either HIT (corresponding to ventilatory threshold I; N = 20) or LIT (20% below ventilatory threshold I; N = 23) for 12 weeks. All sessions were isocaloric (350 kcal). All participants received the same nutritional, psychological, and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile, and glucose at baseline and after 12 weeks. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (z scores sum).
Body mass, Body Mass Index, fatness, and WC were improved (P < .001) in both groups. The sum of z scores (WC + TC + glucose-fitness-HDL) improved in both HIT (12 weeks = −2.16 SD; Cohen’s d = .45) and LIT (12 weeks = −2.13 SD; Cohen’s d = .60) without groups differences. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in WC (r = −.48; P = .003).
HIT does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents.
Maria L. Zonderland, Wietze B.M. Erich, Wouter Kortlandt and D. Willem Erkelens
A 3-year controlled intervention was used to study the influence of physical activity on the plasma lipid and apoprotein profile of 10-year-old Dutch schoolchildren. Twice-a-year measurements were taken of height, weight, body composition (skinfolds), pubertal development (Tanner stages), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apoproteins A-I and B (immunoturbidimetry), and participation in physical activities. The effect of the intervention was analyzed with a MANOVA. The intervention did not affect the level of the lipids and apoproteins of the boys. In the girls, the intervention led to a smaller increase of TG and a larger decrease of apoprotein A-I. There may be two explanations for the limited intervention effect. First, it may be due to the healthy baseline plasma lipid and apoprotein profile, which leaves little room for improvement. Second, the exercise intensity during the physical education classes may have been too low to bring about the desired effect.
Athanasia Chatzipanteli, Nikolaos Digelidis and Athanasios G. Papaioannou
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of student-activated teaching styles through a specific intervention program on students’ self-regulation, lesson satisfaction, and motivation. Six hundred and one 7th grade students (318 boys and 283 girls), aged 13 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a comparison group. The teachers who taught the students assigned to the experimental group used student-activated teaching styles, and specifically the reciprocal, self-check, inclusion, guided discovery, convergent discovery, and divergent discovery styles. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the experimental group, compared with the comparison group, had higher scores in lesson satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and metacognitive activities, and lower scores in external motivation, and amotivation. The study revealed that going beyond the command and/or the practice style of teaching, PE teachers can enhance students’ metacognitive skills, lesson satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.
Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes
intervention, which must be carried out by phone, interviews, or home visits. 45 – 48 Furthermore, few PA intervention studies in Latin America have analyzed the implementation costs, 49 making it difficult to analyze and compare the implementation and maintenance of these programs. Great geographical
Julie D. Guldager, Anja Leppin, Jesper von Seelen and Pernille T. Andersen
.06.012 28838577 26. Moore GF , Littlecott HJ , Turley R , Waters E , Murphy S . Socioeconomic gradients in the effects of universal school-based health behaviour interventions: a systematic review of intervention studies . BMC Public Health . 2015 ; 15 ( 1 ): 907 . doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2244-x
H. Galbraith, J. Scurr, C. Hencken, L. Wood and P. Graham-Smith
This study compared the conventional track and a new one-handed track start in elite age group swimmers to determine if the new technique had biomechanical implications on dive performance. Five male and seven female GB national qualifiers participated (mean ± SD: age 16.7 ± 1.9 years, stretched stature 1.76 ± 0.8 m, body mass 67.4 ± 7.9 kg) and were assigned to a control group (n = 6) or an intervention group (n = 6) that learned the new one-handed dive technique. All swimmers underwent a 4-week intervention comprising 12 ± 3 thirty-minute training sessions. Video cameras synchronized with an audible signal and timing suite captured temporal and kinematic data. A portable force plate and load cell handrail mounted to a swim starting block collected force data over 3 trials of each technique. A MANCOVA identified Block Time (BT), Flight Time (FT), Peak Horizontal Force of the lower limbs (PHF) and Horizontal Velocity at Take-off (Vx) as covariates. During the 10-m swim trial, significant differences were found in Time to 10 m (TT10m), Total Time (TT), Peak Vertical Force (PVF), Flight Distance (FD), and Horizontal Velocity at Take-off (Vx) (p < .05). Results indicated that the conventional track start method was faster over 10 m, and therefore may be seen as a superior start after a short intervention. During training, swimmers and coaches should focus on the most statistically significant dive performance variables: peak horizontal force and velocity at take-off, block and flight time.
Meghan H. McDonough, Catherine M. Sabiston, Whitney A. Sedgwick and Peter R.E. Crocker
Physical and psychosocial health risks are associated with both excess body weight and a sedentary lifestyle (National Institutes of Health [NIH], 1998). However, few researchers have focused on behavioral and motivational processes associated with exercise adoption and maintenance among overweight women. This study examined the efficacy of a team-based physical activity intervention on motivation and activity from a self-determination theory perspective. Overweight, inactive women (N=66) were randomly assigned to either a 12-week dragon boat program or a control condition. Participation in the dragon boat exercise was associated with increased intrinsic motivation and physical activity. Based on these data, the researchers suggest that this novel, team-based exercise intervention may improve motivation and activity levels in this at-risk population.
Marc Theeboom, Paul De Knop and Maureen R. Weiss
Recent research in educational psychology suggests that provision of a mastery motivational climate will maximize enjoyment, perceived competence, and intrinsic motivation in children (Ames, 1992a, 1992b, 1992c). Minimal research has been conducted to test this proposition in the physical domain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a performance versus mastery oriented teaching program on children’s enjoyment, perceived competence, intrinsic motivation, and motor skill development. Children (N = 119) 8 to 12 years of age were randomly assigned to one of the two programs for 3 weeks during an organized sports program. Results revealed that children in the mastery oriented group reported significantly higher levels of enjoyment and exhibited better motor skills than those in the performance oriented group. In-depth interviews further indicated that children in the mastery program were almost unanimous in reporting high levels of perceived competence and intrinsic motivation, while those from the traditional group showed less pronounced effects. These results provide empirical evidence that a mastery motivational climate can result in more positive experiences for young athletes as they learn new skills.