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Kazem Malmir, Gholam Reza Olyaei, Saeed Talebian, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi and Majid Ashraf Ganguie

. Ankle injuries may occur in sport activities, consisting of high repetitions of lateral movements, jumping or landing. 13 , 14 High repetitions of these activities in the lateral direction can fatigue ankle muscles. Therefore, lateral hoping was chosen in this study although previous studies have

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Annabelle King, Mark Hancock and Joanne Munn


Functional strength measures correlate more closely with functional performance than non-functional strength measures.


To determine the reliability of the lateral step test as a measure of maximal strength.


Intertester repeated measures.


Research laboratory.


Twenty four healthy, pain free subjects.


Two protocols (A and B) were evaluated. The protocols were identical except protocol B involved a three second pause. Participants performed a one repetition maximum (1RM) for each protocol on two occasions separated by one week.

Main Outcome Measures:

Step height (nearest cm) representing


Both protocols demonstrated excellent reliability, protocol A: ICC = 0.94 (95% CI, 0.87 to 0.97), SEM = 1.47 cm. Protocol B: ICC= 0.94 (95%CI, 0.85 to 0.97).Percent close agreement within 2 cm was 83.3% for protocol A and 79.1% for protocol B.


Both protocols demonstrated excellent inter-tester reliability as measures of functional lower limb strength.

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Robert Vallandingham, Zachary Winkelmann, Lindsey Eberman and Kenneth Games

practice recommendations for the prevention and management of ankle sprains. 6 The recommendations in the position statement gather the best evidence available for clinicians to prevent and manage a lateral ankle sprain (LAS). Due to the fact that up to 70% of patients report residual effects following a

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Joseph M. Day, Robert Barry Dale and Elizabeth Kennedy

Clinical Scenario Lateral elbow tendinopathy (LE) is a common musculoskeletal condition often resulting in considerable pain and disability for patients who suffer from it. An array of conservative interventions are known to improve patient outcomes in outpatient rehabilitation clinics. However

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Erik A. Wikstrom, Cole Mueller and Mary Spencer Cain

Lateral ankle sprains (LAS) are the most common injuries in sport 1 – 4 and the military 5 , 6 and are extremely common among the general public. 7 In 2010, LAS resulted in excess of $1.1 billion in health care charges from emergency departments in the United States alone. 7 Despite this volume

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Yuichiro Okushima, Nobutoshi Yamazaki, Morio Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Chiba, Takeo Nagura and Yoshiaki Toyama

A biomechanical study of lateral translation in lumbar spine with human cadavers was performed in order to explore the direction of the force increasing lateral translation and the contributions of discs and facet joints to lateral translation. Whole lumbar spines from 12 fresh cadavers were attached to a specially designed loading apparatus whose five cables simulated the muscles of the trunk without restricting natural movement. Three-dimensional positions of each vertebra were recorded with position-sensitive detectors. Force in the anterolateral direction increased the lateral translation more than force in the posterolateral direction. Lateral translation was increased to a significantly greater extent when the facet joints were removed than when the discs were removed at L4-5 at the levels of shear loading applied in this study.

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Nathan Maresh and Jennifer Earl-Boehm

Lateral ankle sprains (LASs) are among the most common injuries encountered during sport and exercise participation. 1 – 3 Typically, a consequence of either extrinsic (eg, direct blow to the ankle or landing on an opponent’s foot) or intrinsic (eg, proprioception deficits, mechanical laxity, or a

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Mohamed Kohia, John Brackle, Kenny Byrd, Amanda Jennings, William Murray and Erin Wilfong


To analyze research literature that has examined the effectiveness of various physical therapy interventions on lateral epicondylitis.

Data Sources:

Evidence was compiled with data located using the PubMed, EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, and the Hooked on Evidence databases from 1994 to 2006 using the key words lateral epicondylitis, tennis elbow, modalities, intervention, management of, treatment for, radiohumeral bursitis, and experiment.

Study Selection:

The literature used included peer-reviewed studies that evaluated the effectiveness of physical therapy treatments on lateral epicondylitis. Future research is needed to provide a better understanding of beneficial treatment options for people living with this condition.

Data Synthesis:

Shockwave therapy and Cyriax therapy protocol are effective physical therapy interventions.


There are numerous treatments for lateral epicondylitis and no single intervention has been proven to be the most efficient. Therefore, future research is needed to provide a better understanding of beneficial treatment options for people living with this condition.

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Bradley J. Monteleone, Janet L. Ronsky, Willem H. Meeuwisse and Ronald F. Zernicke

Ankle function is frequently measured using static or dynamic tasks in normal and injured patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel task to quantify ankle dynamics and muscle activity in normal subjects. Twelve subjects with no prior ankle injuries participated. Video motion analysis cameras, force platforms, and an EMG system were used to collect data during a lateral hop movement task that consisted of multiple lateral-medial hops over an obstacle. Mean (SD) inversion ankle position at contact was 4.4° (4.0) in the medial direction and –3.5° (4.4) in the lateral direction; mean (SD) tibialis anterior normalized muscle activity was 0.11 (0.08) in the medial direction and 0.16 (0.13) in the lateral direction. The lateral hop movement was shown to be an effective task for quantifying ankle kinematics, forces, moments, and muscle activities in normal subjects. Future applications will use the lateral hop movement to assess subjects with previous ankle injuries in laboratory and clinical settings.

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Ji-Hyun Lee and Tae-Lim Yoon

Ankle sprain is the most common musculoskeletal sport-related injury. 1 Especially, lateral ankle sprain accounts for 80% of all ankle injuries. 2 , 3 Its incidence is approximately 15% in college sports. 4 Repetitive lateral ankle sprains can lead to chronic ankle instability (CAI); after