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Aline C. Tritto, Salomão Bueno, Rosa M.P. Rodrigues, Bruno Gualano, Hamilton Roschel and Guilherme G. Artioli

). Training status of participants appears to be a major determinant of the responsiveness to HMB supplementation. Studies with untrained individuals have reported positive effects on strength and lean body mass (LBM; Jówko et al., 2001 ; Nissen et al., 1996 ; Vukovich et al., 2001 ). By contrast, those

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Megan Colletto and Nancy Rodriguez

warranted. Based on skeletal muscle indices (kg lean body mass/height [m 2 ]), approximately 71% of males and 42% of females older than 65 years are moderately sarcopenic ( Janssen, 2006 ). The development of sarcopenia is multifactorial ( Janssen, 2011 ) and managing sarcopenia is vital to the reduction of

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Rochelle D. Kirwan, Lindsay K. Kordick, Shane McFarland, Denver Lancaster, Kristine Clark and Mary P. Miles

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to determine the dietary, anthropometric, blood-lipid, and performance patterns of university-level American football players attempting to increase body mass during 8 wk of training.

Methods:

Three-day diet records, body composition (DEXA scan), blood lipids, and performance measures were collected in redshirt football players (N = 15, age 18.5 ± 0.6 yr) early season and after 8 wk of in-season training.

Results:

There was an increase (p < .05) from early-season to postseason testing for reported energy (+45%), carbohydrate (+82%), and protein (+29%) intakes and no change in the intake of fat. Fat intake was 41% of energy at the early-season test and 32% of energy at the postseason test. Increases (p < .05 for all) in performance measures, lean mass (70.5 ± 7.7–71.8 ± 7.7 kg), fat mass (15.9 ± 6.2–17.3 ± 6.8 kg), plasma total cholesterol (193.5 ± 32.4–222.6 ± 40.0 mg/dl), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL; 92.7 ± 32.7–124.5 ± 34.7 mg/dl) were measured. No changes were measured in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoproteins, or high-density lipoproteins.

Conclusion:

Increases in strength, power, speed, total body mass, muscle mass, and fat mass were measured. Cholesterol and LDL levels increased during the study to levels associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease. It is possible that this is a temporary phenomenon, but it is cause for concern and an indication that dietary education to promote weight gain in a manner less likely to adversely affect the lipid profile is warranted.

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Christopher Rosimus

Composition Body composition (weight—sum of eight skinfolds) and estimates of lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) using the BOD POD™ (BOD POD Body Composition by Air Displacement Plethysmography; COSMED, Rome, Italy) were measured at baseline, Week 3, and Week 6. Body weight was measured using balance

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

of the EE of all recorded activities. Further, the energy availability (EA), which is defined as [energy intake (kcal) − exercise energy expenditure (kcal)]/lean body mass (kg), was calculated. EA is categorized as insufficient when <30 kcal/kg lean body mass (LBM) are consumed ( 38 , 50

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright

). Female physique athletes are assessed on aesthetic appearance and posing ability, whereby high lean body mass (LBM) and low fat mass (FM) are key markers of performance ( Kleiner et al., 1994 ). Competitions involve comparison rounds, wherein athletes are instructed to perform poses, and a final round

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Andrew O. Agbaje, Eero A. Haapala, Niina Lintu, Anna Viitasalo, Juuso Väistö, Sohaib Khan, Aapo Veijalainen, Tuomo Tompuri, Tomi Laitinen and Timo A. Lakka

therefore, dividing CRF by lean body mass (LM) or fat-free mass has been recommended ( 24 ). Previous reviews have described a moderate relationship between obesity and increased arterial stiffness in children ( 10 , 19 ). However, most studies on the association between adiposity and arterial stiffness

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Taina Rantanen and Eino Heikkinen

The aim of this study was to examine alterations in maximal isometric strength of multiple muscle groups over 5 years and to compare strength changes between individuals who maintained a high level of physical activity and others who did not. As a part of the Evergreen Project, 20 men and 59 women participated in at least one strength test at the age of 80 and again 5 years later. Men displayed no decrease in lean body mass over the follow-up. and the only significant strength decrease was in elbow flexion strength. In women, both lean body mass and muscle strength decreased significantly (except trunk extension strength). Overall, those men and women who were considered to have maintained a high level of activity retained their strength at a higher level than the more sedentary participants. Older people should be encouraged to continue physically demanding activities to maintain muscle strength at an adequate level for independent living.

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Craig A. Horswill, William B. Zipf, C. Lawrence Kien and E. Bowie Kahle

Insulin is an anabolic hormone with stimulatory effects on glucose and amino acid uptake, possibly protein synthesis, and bone growth, and inhibitory effects on protein breakdown. The precise role of insulin in the growth of healthy children is unclear, but two clinical models can be examined to illustrate insulin’s potential role in the growth of children. The cystic fibrosis (CF) patient, who exhibits poor linear growth and low lean body mass, may exhibit inadequate insulin secretion or impaired insulin action. The obese child typically has an excess of peripheral insulin, an associated acceleration of linear growth, and an accretion of lean body mass and adipose tissue. Speculation is offered on the putative role of exercise in affecting insulin action and secretion, which in turn could impact growth in children with CF or obesity.

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Beau Kjerulf Greer, Kathleen M. Edsall and Anna E. Greer

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test–retest reliability measures were significant (p < .01) and high for body fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7–68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p < .05). However, there were no differences (p > .05) in BOD POD–determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.