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Amparo Escartí, Ramon Llopis-Goig and Paul M. Wright

-Gunn, 2003 ). In the psychosocial literature, these competencies are called “life skills,” and these types of programs are found under the rubric of positive youth development programs or social and emotional learning programs ( Graczvk & Weissberg, 2003 ). Within models-based practice in physical education

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Martin Camiré, Pierre Trudel and Tanya Forneris

Whether life skills are developed through sport greatly depends on how coaches create suitable environments that promote the development of youth (Gould & Carson, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine, using Gould and Carson’s (2008) model of coaching life skills, the philosophies and strategies used by model high school coaches to coach life skills and how to transfer these life skills to other areas of life. Interviews were conducted with both coaches and their student-athletes. Results indicated that coaches understood their student-athletes preexisting make up and had philosophies based on promoting the development of student-athletes. Results also demonstrated that coaches had strategies designed to coach life skills and educate student-athletes about the transferability of the skills they learned in sport. Although variations were reported, coaches and student-athletes generally believed that student-athletes can transfer the skills learned in sport to other areas of life. These results are discussed using Gould and Carson’s model and the youth development literature.

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Fernando Santos, Leisha Strachan, Daniel Gould, Paulo Pereira and Cláudia Machado

perhaps have their needs for life-skills development and transfer fulfilled. Typically, positive life-skills development (PLSD) represents an asset-based approach that highlights youth’s qualities, specifically in identifying individuals’ strengths in an attempt to nurture a successful transition to

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Sarah Carson Sackett and Lori A. Gano-Overway

Sport has the potential to foster the development of life skills, such as initiative, teamwork, emotion regulation, and goal setting, that transcend the fields and courts on which youth participate (Danish, Forneris, Hodge, & Heke, 2004). However, it is often acknowledged that this growth does not occur on its own. One factor that plays a central role in shaping positive sport experiences is the coach (Hellison & Cutforth, 1997). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature on coaching strategies considered best practices for life skills development as well as to provide illustrative examples of many of these practices garnered from a case study of a model coach and the strategies he used in his high school tennis program. The paper concludes with additional practical considerations and recommendations for practitioners, coach educators, and scholars who continue to add to the body of knowledge regarding a coach’s role in positive youth development.

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Martin Ian Jones, David Lavallee and David Tod

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the ELITE intervention as a method of increasing the perceived use of communication and organization skills in young people. The participants were three male field hockey players and two female tennis players from a British university. We used a series of single subject, multiple baselines, with minimal meaningful harm and benefit criteria and SMDall effect sizes to evaluate the ELITE intervention. The results revealed no meaningful harm from participating in the program, and the tennis players showed meaningful benefits. SMDall effect sizes all demonstrated that the intervention had a positive effect. Post intervention interviews indicated that participants valued the targeted life skills, and the program was enjoyable. Implications of this study suggest that scholars and practitioners can use the ELITE intervention to increase life skills in young people.

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Daniel Gould, Sarah Carson, Angela Fifer, Larry Lauer and Robert Benham

This study was designed to identify issues and concerns involved in contemporary school sports that are perceived as influencing sports’ potential to achieve educational and developmental objectives (e.g., psychosocial and life skill development). Eleven focus group interviews involving 67 participants were conducted with key constituency groups involved in high school athletics (coaches n=14, athletic directors n=20, school principals n=11, parents of current high school athletes n=11, and student-athletes n=21). Results were content analyzed using a three-person inductive consensus procedure and triangulated across constituency groups. Issues identified as concerns included: inappropriate behaviors in high school sport, increased expectations for success, ramifications of over-commitment, health issues, coaching and administrative issues, and unmet affiliation needs of athletes which impact the motivation. Findings are discussed relative to the professionalization of scholastic sports and threats to its developmental and educational potential. Implications for coaching education are emphasized.

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Martin Camiré, Pierre Trudel and Dany Bernard

A case study of a high school ice hockey program designed to teach players life skills and values was conducted to understand, from the perspective of administrators, coaches, parents, and players, the strengths and challenges of the program. Results indicated that the program’s strengths lied in its comprehensive approach to teaching life skills and values in addition to coaches’ ability to foster relationship with players. However, program members also faced many challenges related to traveling, a lack of resources, and conflicting goals. Results are discussed using the Petitpas et al. (2005) framework and the youth development through sport literature.

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Shawn D. Forde

HIV/AIDS education and prevention are often described as one way that SDP can contribute to international development, yet there has been little critical analysis of how discourses legitimize particular conceptions of HIV/AIDS and constructions of life skills. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct a critical discourse analysis, guided by the concept of biopedagogies, of the Live Safe Play Safe (LSPS) manual that Right to Play (RTP) has used to train facilitators for its HIV/AIDS prevention program. The findings demonstrate that discourses of risk, individualism, and deficiency constructed life skills in a way that aligned with neoliberal approaches to health promotion and development; emphasizing risk management and individual responsibility, while glossing over the broader social and political factors influencing HIV transmission.

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Paul M. Wright and Suzanne Burton

Underserved youth are at risk for numerous threats to their physical and psychological well-being. To navigate the challenges they face, they need a variety of positive life skills. This study systematically explored the implementation and short-term outcomes of a responsibility-based physical activity program that was integrated into an intact high school physical education class. Qualitative methods, drawing on multiple data sources, were used to evaluate a 20-lesson teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) program. Participants were 23 African American students in an urban high school. Five themes characterized the program: (a) establishing a relevant curriculum, (b) navigating barriers, (c) practicing life skills, (d) seeing the potential for transfer, and (e) creating a valued program. Findings extend the empirical literature related to TPSR and, more generally, physical activity programs designed to promote life skills. Implications for practitioners are discussed.

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Alisa Boon and Wade Gilbert

The purpose of this paper is to share recommendations from youth sport coaches and administrators on using the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (UN MDGs) for teaching citizenship through youth sport. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with coaches and administrators from one region of the American Youth Soccer Organization. Although only one of the 14 participants was aware of the UN MDGs, every one of them was able to provide at least some specific recommendations for integrating citizenship into youth soccer. Opportunities and challenges for integrating citizenship into coach education programs are discussed based on the results of the present study and related literature on teaching life skills through sport.