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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

; Waldron-Lynch et al., 2010 ; Warrington et al., 2009 ) have consistently reported that male flat jockeys present with low bone mineral density (BMD), with Z -scores often lower than –1. Such low bone densities are often considered to be due to a combination of nutritional factors, including low energy

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

, A. ( 2011 ). Decreased nocturnal oxytocin levels in anorexia nervosa are associated with low bone mineral density and fat mass . The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72 ( 11 ), 1546 – 1551 . PubMed ID: 21903023 doi:10.4088/JCP.10m06617 10.4088/JCP.10m06617 Leal-Cerro , A. , Garcia-Luna , P

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Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

analysis of the impact forces of different modes of exercise as a causal factor to the low bone mineral density in jockeys . Paper presented at the International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports , Ireland . Cummings , S.R. , Black , D.M. , Nevitt , M.C. , Browner , W. , Cauley , J. , Ensrud

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Sports Physiol Perform . 2019 ; 14 ( 4 ): 536 – 539 . doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 30300038 17. Blauwet CA , Brook EM , Tenforde AS , et al . Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in individuals with a disability: Implications for

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Bryan Holtzman, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale and Kathryn E. Ackerman

menstrual dysfunction (MD) and low bone mineral density (BMD) resulting from LEA [with or without disordered eating (DE)], whereas RED-S expands on the many negative physiological and performance consequences of LEA ( De Souza et al., 2014 ; Mountjoy et al., 2014 ; Nattiv et al., 2007 ). Triad includes

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

reported a high prevalence of restrained eating practices and suboptimal EA from diet/exercise assessments of road cyclists; some have been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) ( Viner et al., 2015 ), pressure to lose weight ( Filaire et al., 2007 ), and achievement of the diagnostic criteria for

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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

Situations Where Athletes Should Consider Using Dietary Supplements Where specific nutrient deficiencies have been identified by appropriate investigations Where the consequences of chronic inadequate energy intake have been established, including menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density During

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright

, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of LEA, readers are directed to the review by Loucks et al. ( 2011 ). Prolonged periods of LEA with or without DE, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density are termed the Female Athlete Triad, representing a medical condition observed in females who perform

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

). Influence of sports participation on bone health in the young athlete: A review of the literature . PM&R, 3 , 861 – 867 . 10.1016/j.pmrj.2011.05.019 Tenforde , A.S. , Fredericson , M. , Sayres , L.C. , Cutti , P. , & Sainani , K.L. ( 2015 ). Identifying sex-specific risk factors for low bone