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Dietrich Rothenbacher, Dhayana Dallmeier, Michael D. Denkinger, Bernhard O. Boehm, Wolfgang Koenig, Jochen Klenk and ActiFE Study Group

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the blood transport protein for testosterone and other steroids. Low SHBG serum levels are associated with many adverse health effects in older adults, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, endothelial function, specific cancers, and low bone mineral density

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Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy

components—that is, low energy availability (LEA), menstrual dysfunction (MD), and low bone mineral density (BMD) ( Nattiv et al., 2007 ). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) Consensus Group coined the more comprehensive term, RED-S, to more accurately describe the pathophysiology and multisystem

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

.C. , Cutti , P. , & Sainani , K.L. ( 2015 ). Identifying sex-specific risk factors for low bone mineral density in adolescent runners . The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 43 ( 6 ), 1494 – 1504 . doi:10.1177/0363546515572142 10.1177/0363546515572142 Torstveit , M.K. , & Sundgot-Borgen , J

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Rachel L. Wright, Joseph W. Bevins, David Pratt, Catherine M. Sackley and Alan M. Wing

after decreased mechanical loading . Bone . 2000 ; 27 ( 5 ): 701 – 707 . PubMed ID: 11062359 11062359 10.1016/S8756-3282(00)00374-4 9. Marzolini S , McIlroy W , Tang A , et al . Predictors of low bone mineral density of the stroke-affected hip among ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

; Waldron-Lynch et al., 2010 ; Warrington et al., 2009 ) have consistently reported that male flat jockeys present with low bone mineral density (BMD), with Z -scores often lower than –1. Such low bone densities are often considered to be due to a combination of nutritional factors, including low energy

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Rheanna Bulten, Sara King-Dowling and John Cairney

). Given that children with DCD are at risk for reduced anaerobic fitness ( 4 ) and worse health-related outcomes including low bone mineral density ( 8 ), field-based assessments that allow short-term muscle power to be tracked in large cohorts over time from an early age may improve the detection of

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

, A. ( 2011 ). Decreased nocturnal oxytocin levels in anorexia nervosa are associated with low bone mineral density and fat mass . The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72 ( 11 ), 1546 – 1551 . PubMed ID: 21903023 doi:10.4088/JCP.10m06617 10.4088/JCP.10m06617 Leal-Cerro , A. , Garcia-Luna , P

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Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

analysis of the impact forces of different modes of exercise as a causal factor to the low bone mineral density in jockeys . Paper presented at the International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports , Ireland . Cummings , S.R. , Black , D.M. , Nevitt , M.C. , Browner , W. , Cauley , J. , Ensrud

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David Silva, Ronaldo Gabriel, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes and Aurélio Faria

.05.004. 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.05.004 Eldeeb , A.M. , & Khodair , A.S. ( 2014 ). Three-dimensional analysis of gait in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density . Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 11 ( 1 ), 2 – 7 . PubMed doi:10.1186/1743-0003-11-55. 10

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Sports Physiol Perform . 2019 ; 14 ( 4 ): 536 – 539 . doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0439 30300038 17. Blauwet CA , Brook EM , Tenforde AS , et al . Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density in individuals with a disability: Implications for