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Christopher Kevin Wong, Lizbeth Conway, Grant Fleming, Caitlin Gopie, Dara Liebeskind and Stephen Xue

Clinical Scenario People with musculoskeletal lower quarter dysfunction, whether knee pain, hip arthritis, or low-back pain, can present with lower-limb muscle weakness. Exercise to strengthen weakened muscles is a rehabilitation staple: early strength gains observed in the first 2 weeks have been

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Nicola Giovanelli, Filippo Vaccari, Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Jasmine Copetti, Marco Garra, Lea Biasutti and Stefano Lazzer

maintained during the effort. 17 In turn, our research group has also observed that Cr is affected by muscle power of lower limb extensors. 17 Hence, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SMFR treatment on Cr. In addition, we evaluated the effects of SMFR on lower limbs’ muscle

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Harsh H. Buddhadev and Philip E. Martin

older participants. They concluded that the coactivation of antagonists helps explain the greater energy expenditure of walking typically observed in older adults. With respect to cycling, most research on energy expenditure and lower limb electromyography (EMG) has focused on younger adults. Numerous

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Jessica Ferreira, André Bebiano, Daniel Raro, João Martins and Anabela G. Silva

). Before each test, participants performed 2 training trials (one with the dominant and one with the nondominant limb). Then, each test was repeated 3 times for each lower limb and the mean value was used for statistical analysis. Figure 2 —Representation of the measurements for the three hop tests: single

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Karen L. Perell, Robert J. Gregor and A.M. Erika Scremin

Biomechanical analysis of the generalized muscle moment and power patterns involved in cycling provides information regarding coordination within each limb. The purpose of this study was to compare individual joint kinetics, bilaterally, in subjects who had experienced cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Two-dimensional cinematography and force pedal data in a linked-segment model were used to study 8 ambulatory subjects while they rode a recumbent bicycle. The involved lower limb was defined as the lower limb with the greatest deficits, whereas the contralateral lower limb was defined as the lower limb opposite the involved lower limb and ipsilateral to the lesion site. The contralateral lower limbs of subjects with CVAs demonstrated patterns similar to those reported for nondisabled cyclists on an upright bicycle except for a bimodal hip power generation pattern that was possibly due to compensation for a lack of involved lower limb power generation. There were two critical findings of this study: Single-joint power generation patterns during the power phase indicated that either the hip or the knee, but not both joints, generated power in the involved lower limb, and asymmetrical differences between lower limbs appeared significant at the ankle alone.

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Willemijn M.J. van Rooij, H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons, Herwin L.D. Horemans, Malou H.J. Fanchamps, Fred A. de Laat and Johannes B.J. Bussmann

-Emons, 2013 ; Lord et al., 2011 ). For people with a physical disability, such as lower-limb amputation, it is more difficult to perform regular daily activities, and therefore they are at extra risk for unfavorable physical behavior. People with a lower-limb amputation are an important patient group within

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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis

Human lower limbs contribute to locomotion in multiple ways; acting as springs, as force absorbing dampers, or as actuators ( Brown, O’Donovan, Hasselquist, Corner, & Schiffman, 2016 ; Raynor, Yi, Abernethy, & Jong, 2002 ). The progression of ground reaction forces (GRF) through the lower limbs

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Rodrigo de M. Baldon, Daniel F.M. Lobato, Leonardo Furlan and Fábio Serrão

The purpose of this study was to compare lower limb kinematics between genders during stair descent. Fifteen females and fifteen males who were healthy and active were included in this study. The lower limb kinematics (pelvis, femur and knee) in the coronal and transversal planes were assessed during stair descent at 30°, 40°, 50° and 60° of knee flexion. The study found that females showed greater knee medial rotation for all the knee flexion angles (P = .02−.001), greater femoral adduction (P = .01 for all variables), with exception for 30° (P = .13), and greater femoral lateral rotation at 60° (P = .04). Females also showed a trend to have greater knee valgus at all the knee flexion angles (P = .06−.11) as well as less contralateral pelvis elevation at 50° and 60° (P = .10 and .12, respectively). This study showed that females carry out the stair descent with a lower limb alignment that might predispose them to develop overuse knee injuries, such as the iliotibial band syndrome and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Further prospective investigations should be carried out to verify whether these variables are factors that could predict these knee injuries.

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Lukas D. Linde, Jessica Archibald, Eve C. Lampert and John Z. Srbely

better understand the mechanism of ACL injury with an aim toward improving ACL injury prevention in females. Gender differences in lower limb mechanics have been shown to predispose females to ACL injury. 3 , 4 A large prospective study, in which female basketball and soccer athletes were followed for 2

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Gilbert M. Willett, Gregory M. Karst, Ellen M. Canney, Derrick Gallant and Jodene M. Wees

The purpose of this study was to investigate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of selected lower limb muscles during forward- and backward-facing stair-stepping exercises using a hydraulic step ergometer and during step aerobics using a standard 8 in. high step. Surface electrodes recorded EMG data from the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles on the right lower limbs of 13 healthy subjects under each of the four exercise conditions. Normalized mean EMG amplitude data were used to test for activity-dependent differences. Results indicated that (a) the VL and VMO were significantly (p < .05) more active during step ergometry than during step aerobics, (b) the BF was significantly (p < .05) more active during step aerobics than during step ergometry, and (c) when forward- versus backward-facing positions were compared, there were no statistically significant differences in mean EMG activity for either of the activities. These findings provide information relevant to the use and progression of stepping exercises commonly used for knee muscle strengthening and knee injury rehabilitation programs.