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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein and Douglas J. Casa

-to-rest ratios based on the environmental conditions, using body-cooling strategies, enhancing education, using prudence when dispensing supplements and medications that may contain substances that enhance metabolic rate or compromise thermoregulation, and modifying time or location of physical activity, among a

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Alex S. Ribeiro, Luiz C. Pereira, Danilo R.P. Silva, Leandro dos Santos, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Denilson C. Teixeira, Edilson S. Cyrino and Dartagnan P. Guedes

). However, given the burden of multimorbidity on disabilities and on costs with chronic diseases medications ( Picco et al., 2016 ), further empirical information of the specific association between sedentary behavior, as well as physical activity with multimorbidity and medication intake from low- and

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Oliver Tucha and Klaus W. Lange

Adverse effects of drug therapy on handwriting fluency attributed to increased attentional control have been observed in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The writing performance of 8 children with ADHD was assessed using a digitizing tablet in a double-blind, placebo-controlled test. Participants wrote a phrase in cursive script both on and off stimulant medication writing normally, writing with eyes closed, and writing faster than normal. Medication reduced fluency of normal handwriting movements. When children with ADHD were instructed to write faster than normal or with eyes closed, however, more fluent and even automated movements resulted, even on medication. We also assessed 10 children with ADHD, 10 children without ADHD, 10 adults with ADHD, and 10 adults without ADHD. Participants with ADHD were assessed both on and off medication. Children with ADHD on medication were less fluent than children without ADHD. Without medication, Children with ADHD did not differ from children without ADHD; those on medication showed increased handwriting dysfluency. There was no significant difference between the adults. Both children and adults with ADHD could perform age-appropriate and automated handwriting movements. Children with ADHD on medication, however, gave more attention to the writing process, possibly hampering fluent handwriting movements.

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Hongjun Yu and Andiara Schwingel

, medication, and formal caregiving). Third, research, to date, has focused primarily on Western populations. China is home to the largest older adult population in the world, and to our knowledge, only one study ( Zhang & Chaaban, 2013 ) has investigated the impact of physical inactivity on public health care

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Barry Braun

The concept that participation in exercise/physical activity reduces the risk for a host of chronic diseases is undisputed. Along with adaptations to habitual activity, each bout of exercise induces beneficial changes that last for a finite period of time, requiring subsequent exercise bouts to sustain the benefits. In this respect, exercise/physical activity is similar to other “medications” and the idea of “Exercise as Medicine” is becoming embedded in the popular lexicon. Like other medications, exercise has an optimal dose and frequency of application specific to each health outcome, as well as interactions with food and other medications. Using the prevention of type-2 diabetes as an exemplar, the application of exercise/physical activity as a medication for metabolic “rehabilitation” is considered in these terms. Some recommendations that are specific to diabetes prevention emerge, showing the process by which exercise can be prescribed to achieve health goals tailored to individual disease prevention outcomes.

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Douglas W. Powell, Anburaj Muthumani and Ruiping Xia

Bradykinesia is a cardinal symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Both aging and disease are shown to be associated with decreased adaptability to environmental stresses characterized by reduced complexity (or increased regularity) of biorhythms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regularity of movement in individuals with PD, and the effect of dopaminergic medication. Nine subjects with PD and eight controls performed wrist flexion/extension movements at maximal velocity and range of motion. Subjects with PD were tested under two medication conditions. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was calculated to assess the regularity of the movement, with the smaller value associated with the greater regularity. Data revealed that subjects with PD had lower ApEn values than controls. Medication did not alter the ApEn values. These findings demonstrate that impaired voluntary movement in individuals with PD is associated with increased regularity of movement and this exaggerated regularity appears less sensitive to anti-PD medication.

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Maja Zamoscinska, Irene R. Faber and Dirk Büsch

main treatment. 9 To be more precise, the basic treatment consists of supplementations with calcium and vitamin D. 15 In addition, the patients often have to take antiresorptive or osteoanabolic medication. 15 , 16 Although this treatment is beneficial, applying these medicines can cause one or more

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Claudia Verret, Phillip Gardiner and Louise Béliveau

The purpose of this study was to assess fitness and gross motor performance of children with ADHD, including users and nonusers of methylphenidate medication. Seventy boys took part in the study. Fitness level of children with ADHD using medication or not, including body composition, flexibility, and muscular endurance, was similar to that of a control group. The only difference was observed for body mass index, which was lower in children with ADHD using medication. Aerobic capacity was also similar when measured by a treadmill test. A lower performance was observed when aerobic capacity was estimated using a field shuttle test, however, suggesting that the methodology used is important. Finally, both groups of children with ADHD presented significantly lower scores for locomotion skills.

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Allison B. Smith, Natalie M. Welch and Robin Hardin

are begging for tenure.’” During her time at her first institution, Maggie suffered from anxiety and took medication for depression, but she feared this department head could ruin her reputation that she worked so hard to create. Maggie discussed how she knew this department head was treating other

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Scott J. Pedersen, Paul R. Surburg, Matthew Heath and David M. Koceja

The purpose was to investigate central and peripheral processing mechanisms through the use of electromyography (EMG) to determine differences between the performance of children with and without ADHD on a lower extremity choice response time task. Sixteen children with ADHD were tested on and off medication along with 19 children without ADHD. For premotor time, the comparison group performed significantly faster than children with ADHD. The longer latencies exhibited in central processing of children with ADHD were related to midline crossing inhibition (MCI). Medication improved the speed of processing for children with ADHD, but did not negate MCI.