about the treatment of minorities ( Brown, Jackson, et al. 2003 ; Zestcott & Brown, 2015 ). The present study draws on contact ( Allport, 1954 ; Dovidio, Love, Schellhaas, & Hewstone, 2017 ; Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006 ), social identity ( Hogg, Abrams, & Brewer, 2017 ; Tajfel & Turner, 1986 ), and self
). Historically, racial minorities have been excluded from positions involving leadership and cognitive demands in sports ( Frey & Eitzen, 1991 ). Characterized by a militaristic culture and complex division of labor with numerous different tasks, football illustrates how complex organizations can beget different
Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima and Elyse Bierut
future. Further, research must move beyond the demographic documentation of race to capturing both the experience of race and the ways racial minorities, specifically Black women, cope with race. Finally, future research needs to tease out whether or not the relationship between race-related stress and
Brett D. Johnson and Norris R. Johnson
One explanation for stacking in sports is that minorities are excluded from positions with the greatest opportunity for determining the outcome of the competition, with the place kicker in football cited as an example. This paper postulated that the short relief pitcher in baseball also has high outcome control, and it hypothesized that minorities would be underrepresented in that position as well. We classified major league pitchers from the 1992 and 1993 seasons as starters, stoppers, or others and tested whether race or ethnicity was a factor in assignment to these positions. The hypothesis was not supported for either African American or Latin American pitchers. Minority group members were equally underrepresented in all categories of the pitcher position.
George B. Cunningham and Michael Sagas
Whereas previous research has demonstrated racial differences in occupational turnover intent, why such differences exist remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this Research Note was to examine perceived opportunity, career satisfaction, and occupational turnover intent of racial-minority and White NCAA Division I-A assistant football coaches (N = 382). Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that racial minorities perceived less career-related opportunity, were less satisfied with their careers, and had greater occupational turnover intentions than their White counterparts. Structural equation modeling indicated that career satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between perceived opportunity and occupational turnover intent. Results highlight the need for a change in the organizational culture of intercollegiate athletic departments such that diversity is valued and embraced.
Akira Asada, Yong Jae Ko and Wonseok (Eric) Jang
( Mullen, 1991 ). This construct is conceptualized as dichotomous: minority or majority ( Simon & Brown, 1987 ). We selected relative size as a key factor because it determines the salience of the resident and fan categories when potential fans of a local team classify the team’s existing fans and
R. Saylor Breckenridge and Pat Rubio Goldsmith
We examine the effect of the visibility of African American, Latino, and Jewish baseball players on attendance at Major League Baseball games between 1930 and 1961. We invoke the sociological concepts of “social distance,” “spectacle,” and “group threat” and incorporate data focusing on the era of integration to expand on previous research in this arena. Notably, African American and Latino player visibility—but not that of other groups—is revealed to increase attendance at games. This effect weakens for losing teams and in cities with relatively larger minority populations. The findings suggest a synthesis of theories is possible.
Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen
This article focuses on the dominant meanings given by coaches and managers to “performance” in Dutch (amateur) sport clubs and how such meanings contribute to organizational processes related to (the intersection of) gender and race/ethnicity. We use the results of six studies conducted in (amateur) sport organizations in the Netherlands for this discussion/exploration. We argue that the relatively slow increase in the number of women and ethnic minorities in leadership positions can in part be explained by the dominant meanings given to “performance.” We also show how the salience of the intersection between gender and race/ethnicity is situation-specific.
Forrest J. Berghorn, Norman R. Yetman and William E. Hanna
This article examines the relationship, over time, between the analytically separable phenomena of interracial participation and racial integration in intercollegiate basketball. A large sample of NCAA men’s and women’s teams is analyzed to determine trends between 1958 and 1985 in levels of racial participation, degrees of equal opportunity for blacks, and the extent of racial “stacking.” Comparisons are made among NCAA divisions, geographical regions, public and private schools, and men’s and women’s basketball. The findings support Kanter’s (1977) general proposition that the proportion of a minority group’s representation in an organization is an important dimension of that organization’s life.
Dana M. Williams
The purpose of this research was to explore support for Native American sports nicknames. A survey of students at the University of North Dakota, a school with substantial Native student enrollment, was conducted to determine support or opposition to the school’s “Fighting Sioux” nickname and logo. A majority of Native American and a minority of White students thought that the nickname conveyed disrespect and argued for change. Although the study was situated within Bonilla-Silva’s theory of “new racism,” the results indicated that a frame of color-blind racism provided an inadequate explanation of attitudes toward these nicknames.