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Jeanette M. Garcia, Alen Agaronov, John R. Sirard, Diane Whaley, David J. Rice and Arthur Weltman

Background:

Sedentary behavior (SB) increases throughout adolescence, and is associated with adverse health outcomes.

Purpose:

Examine psychosocial and friend influences on SB and screen time in adolescents using a mixed-methods design.

Methods:

108 middle and high school students wore accelerometers to measure objective SB, completed screen time and psychosocial questionnaires, and nominated friends to complete activity questionnaires. Focus groups centered around influences on SB behavior. Regression analyses and NVivo software analyzed quantitative and qualitative data.

Results:

Screen time was associated with greater screen time enjoyment, lower self-efficacy, and friends’ screen time (r 2 = .21, P < .0001). Friends influenced whether adolescents engaged in screen time behaviors, with active friends encouraging less screen time.

Conclusion:

Active friends influenced adolescents to engage in less SB. Interventions should place an emphasis on encouraging less screen time, and providing opportunities for adolescents and their friends to engage in activities that promote physical activity rather than SB.

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Lucia Andrea Leone and Dianne S. Ward

Background:

Obese women have lower levels of physical activity than nonobese women, but it is unclear what drives these differences.

Methods:

Mixed methods were used to understand why obese women have lower physical activity levels. Findings from focus groups with obese white women age 50 and older (N = 19) were used to develop psychosocial items for an online survey of white women (N = 195). After examining the relationship between weight group (obese vs. nonobese) and exercise attitudes, associated items (P < .05) were tested for potential mediation of the relationship between weight and physical activity.

Results:

Obese women were less likely than nonobese women to report that they enjoy exercise (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2−0.8) and were more likely to agree their weight makes exercise difficult (OR = 10.6, 95% CI 4.2−27.1), and they only exercise when trying to lose weight (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.6−8.9). Enjoyment and exercise for weight loss were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between weight and physical activity.

Conclusions:

Exercise interventions for obese women may be improved by focusing on exercise enjoyment and the benefits of exercise that are independent of weight loss.

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Mary Ann Kluge, Michelle LeCompte and Lisa Ramel

This study’s mixed-methods design sought to understand how to encourage assisted-living (AL) residents to initiate and continue exercise in a gym setting. Ten residents participated in this yearlong program. Processes developed and perceived benefits were understood through interviews and observations. Changes in active time, lower body strength, and workload were evaluated using direct measures. Findings indicated that AL residents regularly used exercise machines (mean participation = 53.8%) and increased active time and lower body strength (p = .02) when adequately prepared and supported. Participants prioritized gym time and developed pride and ownership in the program. They described themselves as exercisers and developed a sense of belonging to their new home. Friendships with one another, staff, and university partners were nurtured in the gym setting. When provided space, equipment, trained staff, and additional resource support, AL residents’ quality of life and life satisfaction were enhanced in several domains.

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Nathan H. Parker, Rebecca E. Lee, Daniel P. O’Connor, An Ngo-Huang, Maria Q.B. Petzel, Keri Schadler, Xuemei Wang, Lianchun Xiao, David Fogelman, Richard Simpson, Jason B. Fleming, Jeffrey E. Lee, Ching-Wei D. Tzeng, Sunil K. Sahai, Karen Basen-Engquist and Matthew H.G. Katz

of adults age 70 and over: a mixed-methods study . J Aging Phys Act . 2012 ; 20 ( 2 ): 148 – 170 . PubMed ID: 22472577 doi:10.1123/japa.20.2.148 10.1123/japa.20.2.148 34. British Columbia Ministry of Health . Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire .  British Columbia, Canada : Canadian

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Janelle Armstrong-Brown, Eugenia Eng, Wizdom Powell Hammond, Catherine Zimmer and J. Michael Bowling

Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants’ physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.

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Denny Meyer, Madawa W. Jayawar, Samuel Muir, David Ho and Olivia Sackett

has shown that a mixed-methods analysis is well suited to an evaluation of programs such as the VPGC, with qualitative data used to add richness and context for the quantitative results. The use of text mining for the extraction of qualitative information is recommended because this information can

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Samantha M. Gray, Joan Wharf Higgins and Ryan E. Rhodes

, and there is limited evaluation of follow-up PA behavior postintervention. Lee et al. ( 2016 ) conducted a 13-month mixed methods feasibility trial of an SDT-based group exercise program for community-dwelling older adults. The study applied several motivational strategies to support each of the three

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Leah J. Ferguson, Kent C. Kowalski, Diane E. Mack and Catherine M. Sabiston

Using a mixed methods research design, we explored self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being in young women athletes. In a quantitative study (n = 83), we found that self-compassion and eudaimonic well-being were positively related (r = .76, p < .01). A model of multiple mediation was proposed, with self-compassion, passivity, responsibility, initiative, and self-determination accounting for 83% of the variance in eudaimonic well-being. In a qualitative study (n = 11), we explored when and how self-compassion might be useful in striving to reach one’s potential in sport. Self-compassion was described as advantageous in difficult sport-specific situations by increasing positivity, perseverance, and responsibility, as well as decreasing rumination. Apprehensions about fully embracing a self-compassionate mindset in sport warrant additional research to explore the seemingly paradoxical role of self-compassion in eudaimonic well-being.

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Joanna M. Kesten, Russ Jago, Simon J. Sebire, Mark J. Edwards, Laura Pool, Jesmond Zahra and Janice L. Thompson

Background:

Interventions to increase children’s physical activity (PA) have achieved limited success. This may be attributed to inaccurate parental perceptions of their children’s PA and a lack of recognition of a need to change activity levels.

Methods:

Fifty-three parents participated in semistructured interviews to determine perceptions of child PA. Perceptions were compared with children’s measured MVPA (classified as meeting or not meeting UK guidelines) to produce 3 categories: “accurate,” “over-estimate,” and “under-estimate.” Deductive content analysis was performed to understand the accuracy of parental perceptions.

Results:

All parents of children meeting the PA guidelines accurately perceived their child’s PA; while the majority of parents whose child did not meet the guidelines overestimated their PA. Most parents were unconcerned about their child’s PA level, viewing them as naturally active and willing to be active. Qualitative explanations for perceptions of insufficient activity included children having health problems and preferences for inactive pursuits, and parents having difficulty facilitating PA in poor weather and not always observing their child’s PA level. Social comparisons also influenced parental perceptions.

Conclusions:

Strategies to improve parental awareness of child PA are needed. Perceptions of child PA may be informed by child “busyness,” being unaware of activity levels, and social comparisons.

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Brenda Bruner and Karen Chad

Background:

Overweight and obesity among Aboriginal women is a growing concern, with increasing prevalence rates linked to a sedentary lifestyle. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for unhealthy body weight; however before addressing health enhancing behaviors, understanding lifestyle practices, attitudes and beliefs are important.

Methods:

A mixed methods approach assessed physical activity (PA) practices (n = 58), and attitudes and beliefs (n = 19) among First Nations women. The Modifiable Activity Questionnaire assessed PA, and a focused ethnography explored attitudes and beliefs.

Results:

Self-reported PA was highest in the youngest age group. Both total and leisure-time PA decreased when house-related activities were not accounted for. Younger participants reported sport-related activities, while older participants reported traditional activities (eg, berry picking, fishing). Participants’ believed PA promoted good health, yet personal (ie, lack of time), community-specific (ie, lack of opportunities/encouragement) and environmental (ie, inclement weather, safety) factors acted as barriers. Age-specific, women-only programs were highlighted as potential enablers.

Conclusions:

The findings highlight the need to assess cultural specific practices, attitudes and beliefs as PA programs that focus on reducing barriers identified in the community and are designed based on expressed interest and preferences may improve leisure-related PA levels among all age groups.