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Krissy D. Weisgarber, Darren G. Candow and Emelie S. M. Vogt


To determine the effects of whey protein before and during resistance exercise (RE) on body composition and strength in young adults.


Participants were randomized to ingest whey protein (PRO; 0.3 g/kg protein; n = 9, 24.58 ± 1.8 yr, 88.3 ± 17.1 kg, 172.5 ± 8.0 cm) or placebo (PLA; 0.2 g/kg cornstarch maltodextrin + 0.1 g/kg sucrose; n = 8, 23.6 ± 4.4 yr, 82.6 ± 16.1 kg, 169.4 ± 9.2 cm) during RE (3 sets of 6–10 repetitions for 9 whole-body exercises), which was performed 4 d/wk for 8 wk. PRO and PLA were mixed with water (600 ml); 50% of the solution containing 0.15 g/kg of PRO or PLA was consumed immediately before the start of exercise, and ~1.9% of the remaining solution containing ~0.006 g/kg of PRO or PLA was consumed immediately after each training set. Before and after the study, measures were taken for leantissue mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle size of the elbow and knee flexors and extensors and ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors (ultrasound), and muscle strength (1-repetition-maximum chest press).


There was a significant increase (p < .05) in muscle size of the knee extensors (PRO 0.6 ± 0.4 cm, PLA 0.1 ± 0.5 cm), knee flexors (PRO 0.4 ± 0.6 cm, PLA 0.5 ± 0.7 cm) and ankle plantar flexors (PRO 0.6 ± 0.7 cm, PLA 0.8 ± 1.4 cm) and chest-press strength (PRO 16.6 ± 11.1 kg, PLA 9.1 ± 14.6 kg) over time, with no differences between groups.


The ingestion of whey protein immediately before the start of exercise and again after each training set has no effect on muscle mass and strength in untrained young adults.

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Bareket Falk, Laura Brunton, Raffy Dotan, Charlotte Usselman, Panagiota Klentrou and Davie Gabriel

Ten prepubertal girls and 15 young women were tested for maximal torque, peak rate of torque development, electro-mechanical delay (EMD), and time to peak rate of torque development during isometric elbow flexion. Absolute peak torque (17.0 ± 7.7 vs. 40.5 ± 8.3 Nm) and peak rate of torque development (105.9 ± 58.6 vs. 297.2 ± 113.0 Nm·s−1) were lower in the girls (p < .05). Normalized to muscle cross sectional area, torque was similar (8.27 ± 2.74 vs. 8.44 ± 1.65 Nm·cm−2), as was peak rate of torque development, normalized to peak torque (6.21 ± 1.94 vs. 7.30 ± 2.26 Nm·s−1/Nm). Both, time to peak rate of torque development (123.8 ± 36.0 vs. 110.5 ± 52.6 ms) and EMD (73.2 ± 28.6 vs. 51.9 ± 25.6 ms), were longer in the girls, although EMD’s difference only approached statistical significance (p = .06). Age-related isometric strength differences in females appear to be mainly muscle-size dependent. However, the time to peak torque and EMD findings suggest differential motor-unit activation which may functionally manifest itself in fast dynamic contractions.

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Thomas M. Maden-Wilkinson, Jamie S. McPhee, David A. Jones and Hans Degens

To investigate reasons for the age-related reduction in physical function, we determined the relationships between muscle size, strength, and power with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and timed up-and-go performance in 49 young (23 ± 3.1 years) and 66 healthy, mobile older adults (72 ± 5 years). While muscle mass, determined by DXA and MRI, did not correlate with performance in the older adults, power per body mass, determined from a countermovement jump, did correlate. The 40% lower jumping power observed in older adults (p < .05) was due to a lower take-off velocity, which explained 34% and 42% of the variance in 6MWD in older women and men, respectively (p < .01). The lower velocity was partly attributable to the higher body mass to maximal force ratio, but most was due to a lower intrinsic muscle speed. While changes in muscle function explain part of the age-related reduction in functional performance, ~60% of the deficit remains to be explained.

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Thomas W. Balon, Jeffrey F. Horowitz and Karen M. Fitzsimmons

Bodybuilders have used different carbohydrate loading regimens in conjunction with resistance exercise prior to competition in the belief that this would result in increased muscle size. To investigate this possibility, muscle girth measurements were obtained from nine weight-trained males before and after a control (standard isocaloric diet) and an experimental trial (carbohydrate loading). The latter regimen consisted of 3 days of intense weight-lifting while the subjects ingested a diet of 10% carbohydrate (CHO), 57% fat (F), and 33% protein (P), followed by 3 days of light weight-lifting and a day of rest while ingesting a diet of 80% CHO, 5% F, and 15% P. The control trial consisted of an identical weight-lifting regimen while subjects ingested an isocaloric (45 kcal/kg BWIday) diet. Body weight and girths (forearm, upper arm, chest, thigh, waist, and calf) were obtained before and after each trial in a relaxed and flexed state. The results indicated that an exercise/carbohydrate loading regimen had no significant effect on muscle girth as compared to the control trial. It is concluded that CHO loading has no additional advantage to enhancing muscle girth in bodybuilders over weight-lifting alone.

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Samantha J. Wilson, Bryan Christensen, Kara Gange, Christopher Todden, Harlene Hatterman-Valenti and Jay M. Albrecht

Context: Chronic plantarflexor (PF) stretching during ankle immobilization helps preserve calf girth, plantarflexion peak torque, and ankle dorsiflexion (DF) motion. Immobilization can lead to decreases in muscle peak torque, muscle size, and joint range of motion (ROM). Recurrent static stretching during a period of immobilization may reduce the extent of these losses. Objective: To investigate the effects of chronic static stretching on PF peak torque, calf girth, and DF ROM after 2 weeks of ankle immobilization. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Athletic training facility. Participants: A total of 36 healthy college-aged (19.81 [2.48]) females. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: control group, immobilized group (IM), and immobilized plus stretching (IM+S) group. Each group participated in a familiarization period, a pretest, and, 2 weeks later, a posttest. The IM group and IM+S group wore the Aircast Foam Pneumatic Walker for 2 weeks on the left leg. During this time, the IM+S group participated in a stretching program, which consisted of two 10-minute stretching procedures each day for the 14 days. Main Outcome Measures: One-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences in the change of ankle girth, PF peak torque, and DF ROM between groups with an α level of <.05. Results: A significant difference was noted between groups in girth (F 2,31 = 5.64, P = .01), DF ROM (F 2,31 = 26.13, P < .001), and PF peak torque (F 2,31 = 7.74, P = .002). Post hoc testing also showed a significance difference between change in calf girth of the control group compared with the IM group (P = .01) and a significant difference in change of peak torque in the IM+S group and the IM group (P = .001). Also, a significant difference was shown in DF ROM between the control group and IM+S group (P = .01), the control group and the IM group (P < .001), and the IM+S group and the IM group (P < .001). Conclusion: Chronic static stretching during 2 weeks of immobilization may decrease the loss of calf girth, ankle PF peak torque, and ankle DF ROM.

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Mark A. Feger, Luke Donovan, C. Collin Herb, Geoffrey G. Handsfield, Silvia S. Blemker, Joseph M. Hart, Susan A. Saliba, Mark F. Abel, Joseph S. Park and Jay Hertel

to be more neuromuscular, rather than due to muscle size, in nature. Supervised rehabilitation programs 20 – 23 emphasizing neuromuscular and balance training for patients with CAI have been associated with improved patient-reported outcomes and sensorimotor measures, but the effects of such

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Tomohiro Yasuda

to evaluate the functional status of individuals and to identify and treat those at risk for mobility problems and frailty. In the periodic and field-based simplified approaches, the handgrip strength measurement has been widely used in clinical practice for the assessment of muscle size or strength

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) uses a variety of electrical wave forms to artificially stimulate or superimpose training innervated muscles. EMS has been applied for muscle strengthening, facilitation of muscle contraction and motor control, and maintenance of muscle size and strength during

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Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr

combined with BFR to alter muscle size and strength and provided preliminary evidence of potential efficacy. They found a low-intensity NMES training exposure of twice daily, 5 days per week for a duration of 2 weeks induced muscular mass and a concomitant increase in isometric and isokinetic strength

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John M. Radnor, Jon L. Oliver, Charlotte M. Waugh, Gregory D. Myer and Rhodri S. Lloyd

( 27 ). It is known that maturity leads to increased body mass and fat-free mass ( 24 ); however, the specific structural adaptations that occur naturally throughout growth and maturation are yet to be fully understood. Very few studies have specifically examined how muscle size changes throughout