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R. Dale Sheptak Jr. and Brian E. Menaker

technological advances, the quest for efficiency and flexibility has reshaped the landscape of work in the 21st century and moved models of employment away from the normalized full-time, regular, and defined work week that became the foundation of the Fordist era and replaced it with part-time, flexible

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Christiana Schallhorn and Jessica Kunert

, Sky , and tabloid newspaper BILD , and also on and several Twitch channels, the latter two being popular websites for e-gaming and streaming. Thus, the Bundesliga Home Challenge can be regarded as innovative insofar that it normalized the presence of eSports players almost in passing

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Joshua D. Vadeboncoeur, Trevor Bopp and John N. Singer

physical, but a theoretical state of being where our assumptions, perceptions, and cultural frames operate to normalize and perpetuate whiteness. Thus, this duality of being is critical to the manifestation and reproduction of whiteness, or rather “the theoretical, methodological, epistemological, and

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Milena M. Parent, Michael L. Naraine and Russell Hoye

.786 (all values normalized). Yet, there was one organization that fell well below this average: the Canadian TenPin Federation bore an outdegree score of 13.576, a discernable outlier from the others in the data set. Its low score is not indicative of a lack of coordination with key sport

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Fernando Borges

the role of particular media in sociocultural change ( Couldry & Hepp, 2013 ; Hepp, 2013 ). The attention to this idea emerged as media became omnipresent in the everyday lives of late-modern capitalist societies. By the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, observers saw the normalization

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Emily Stadder and Michael L. Naraine

avenues are closely connected with sport, as marketers seek the association with sport to increase the normalization and legitimacy of gambling ( Gainsbury et al., 2016 ). Through television, there are multiple options for gambling operators to promote their products. Of course, there is the use of

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Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

represents an important exertion of influence and control and serves to facilitate the normalization and legitimation of ideas, concepts, or practices ( Weedon, 1987 ). This discursive power can further be conceptualized through the lens of soft power ( Nye, 1990 ), which refers to one’s ability “to

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Hans C. Schmidt

considerable attention for his affinity for golf ( Shipnuck, 2017 ). Indeed, such connections between prominent political leaders and sports are so common that, as Green and Hartmann ( 2012 ) wrote, they have become “so deeply normalized that we don’t even notice” (par. 5). Clearly, the connection between

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Orland Hoeber, Ryan Snelgrove, Larena Hoeber and Laura Wood

electronic formats, the consistency of the data, and the need for data format normalization. In some cases, the data source may be readily available (e.g., Twitter, Google News advanced search); in other cases, converting the data into a format that can be readily analyzed may be challenging and time

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Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield and Jaquelyn Osborne

adopted in order to normalize and/or trivialize gender-based discrimination ( Lockyer & Savigny, 2019 ). Often the violence targeting the women athletes online was subtle and hidden through humor, therefore reducing its likelihood to be recognized as violent content. As a result, these interactions often