The series of related studies reported here describe the development and validation of the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP). In Study 1, an expert and usability panel examined the content validity and applicability of an initial item pool. The resultant 96 items were analyzed with exploratory factor analyses in Study 2, with the factorial structure comprising 5 factors (viz., Goals and Development, Logistics and Operations, Team and Culture, Coaching, Selection) and 33 items. Using confirmatory factor analyses, Studies 3 and 4 found support for the 5-factor structure. Study 4 also provided evidence for the OSI-SP’s concurrent validity and invariance across different groups. The OSI-SP is proposed as a valid and reliable measure of the organizational stressors encountered by sport performers.
Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher and Kevin Daniels
Yusuke Tabei, David Fletcher and Kate Goodger
This study investigated the relationship between organizational stressors in sport and athlete burnout and involved a cross-cultural comparison of English and Japanese soccer players. Ninety-eight male players completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (Raedeke & Smith, 2001) to determine levels of perceived burnout. Based on data reported in previous research, and the thresholds developed by Hodge, Lonsdale, and Ng (2008), 22 of the players were identified as exhibiting higher levels of perceived burnout. Nine members of this subsample (4 English and 5 Japanese players) were subsequently interviewed to explore the relationship between their experiences of burnout and the organizational stressors they encountered. Results revealed multiple demands linked to the dimensions of athlete burnout and identified specific organizational-related issues that players associated with the incidence of burnout. Cultural differences between English and Japanese players in terms of the prevalence and organizational stressors associated with burnout were also identified, with the main differences being the relationship with senior teammates and the coaching style.
Eric Yiou, Manon Gendre, Thomas Deroche and Serge Le Bozec
This study examined how pleasant and unpleasant emotional states influence the biomechanical organization of both forward and backward step initiation (SI). Participants (N = 31) purposely took a single step toward or away from a screen following the presentation of a pleasant (erotic), unpleasant (mutilation) or neutral (objects and landscapes) image. The main results showed that the reaction time for forward SI was shortened when individuals were exposed to pleasant pictures as compared with unpleasant pictures. The anticipatory whole-body center-ofmass velocity associated with backward SI, as well as the peak of center-of-mass velocity associated with forward SI both reached lower values when individuals were exposed to pleasant pictures as compared with neutral pictures. In contrast, unpleasant pictures did not significantly induce any change in the forward or backward SI parameters. Overall, these results obtained for whole-body approach/avoidance-like behaviors provided mitigated support for the so-called “motivational direction hypothesis.”
Andreas Stenling and Susanne Tafvelin
Leadership development programs are common in sports, but seldom evaluated; hence, we have limited knowledge about what the participants actually learn and the impact these programs have on sports clubs’ daily operations. The purpose of the current study was to integrate a transfer of training model with self-determination theory to understand predictors of learning and training transfer, following a leadership development program among organizational leaders in Swedish sports clubs. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that autonomous motivation and an autonomy-supportive implementation of the program positively predicted near transfer (i.e., immediately after the training program) and that perceiving an autonomy-supportive climate in the sports club positively predicted far transfer (i.e., 1 year after the training program). This study extends previous research by integrating a transfer of training model with self-determination theory and identified important motivational factors that predict near and far training transfer.
Faye F. Didymus and David Fletcher
This study investigated sport performers’ coping strategies in response to organizational stressors, examined the utility of Skinner, Edge, Altman, and Sherwood’s (2003) categorization of coping within a sport context, determined the short-term perceived effectiveness of the coping strategies used, and explored appraisal-coping associations. Thirteen national standard swimmers completed semistructured, interval-contingent diaries every day for 28 days. Results revealed 78 coping strategies, which supported 10 of Skinner et al.’s (2003) families of coping. Twenty-four different combinations of coping families were identified. The perceived most effective coping family used in isolation was self-reliance and in combination was escape and negotiation. Stressful appraisals were associated with varied coping strategies. The results highlight the complexity of coping and point to the importance of appraisal-coping associations. Skinner et al.’s (2003) categorization of coping provides a promising conceptual framework for the development of coping research in sport.
Susan C. Hu, Nuan-Ching Huang, Ya-Tin Lin, Shiann-Far Kung and Linda L. Lin
During the past decade many studies have endeavored to evaluate the relationships between environmental attributes and physical activity, but there is limited data on this subject in Taiwan. This is the first study to investigate both objective and subjective environments in relation to different levels of physical activity in adults in Tainan, Taiwan.
A 2-stage survey examining relationships between physical and social environments and physical activity was designed. It was administered to a sample including 231 community directors and 804 randomly selected residents. Community audits and telephone interviews were used as the objective and subjective measures in the study, respectively.
No correlation was found between the objective and the subjective measures of physical environments. Only the subjective measures were significantly related to city residents’ physical activities. Perceived physical facility was found to be correlated with engagement in physical activity, whereas organizational participation was associated with the regularity of physical activity. Of the 4 types of leisure activity examined in this study, dancing and aerobic activities are more likely to be engaged in regularly.
Factors associated with the regularity of physical activity are not the same as factors associated with engagement in physical activity.
Stefania Marin and Marianne Pouplier
This study systematically investigates the temporal organization of American English onset and coda consonant clusters on the basis of kinematic data. Results from seven speakers suggest that consonants in complex onsets are organized globally with respect to the following vowel, while consonants in complex codas are organized locally relative to the preceding vowel. These results support the competitive coupling model hypothesized for complex onsets, a model according to which consonant gestures in onsets are each coupled in-phase to the vowel, and antiphase with each other. The results are overall also consistent with the noncompetitive coupling relations assumed for codas, by which only the first consonant in a cluster is coupled antiphase with the vowel, and any subsequent consonants are coupled antiphase to each other. However, our data also show that the segmental composition of the cluster affects the timing relationship in codas, particularly /lC/ coda clusters pattern differently from other clusters and do not adhere to the predicted timing relations. The data contribute to our understanding of the interaction of linguistic structure and motor control of the articulators in speech production.
Edited by Thomas W. Rowland
Heather R. Bowles, Dafna Merom, Tien Chey, Ben J. Smith and Adrian Bauman
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between characteristics of recreational activity and total physical activity (PA).
Recreational activity type and number were assessed for 3,385 adult respondents to the population-based Exercise Recreation and Sport Survey and categorized as “no recreational activity,” “walking only,” “sport only,” or “combined walking and sport.” Total PA was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and categorized as “low,” “moderate,” or “high.”
Odds of high total PA were 1.7 times greater among walking-only participants, 2.9 times greater among sport-only participants, and 3.3 times greater among participants in combined walking and sport compared to no recreational activity participants. Greater number of recreational activities related to increased odds of high total PA. Similar associations were observed between recreational activity and moderate total PA.
Participants in more than one type of recreational activity were less likely to have a low-active lifestyle.