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Stephanie Mazzucca, Derek Hales, Kelly R. Evenson, Alice Ammerman, Deborah F. Tate, Diane C. Berry and Dianne S. Ward

Background: Physical activity has many benefits for young children’s health and overall development, but few studies have investigated how early care and education centers allot time for physical activity, along with measured individual physical activity levels for indoor/outdoor activities during a typical day. Methods: Fifty early care and education centers in central North Carolina participated in 4 full-day observations, and 559 children aged 3–5 years within centers wore accelerometers assessing physical activity during observation days. Observation and physical activity data were linked and analyzed for associations between child activity and type of classroom activity. Results: Children averaged 51 (13) minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity and 99 (18) minutes per day of light physical activity while in child care. Children averaged 6 (10) and 10 (13) minutes per day of observed outdoor and indoor daily teacher-led physical activity, respectively. Outdoor time averaged 67 (49) minutes per day, and physical activity levels were higher during outdoor time than during common indoor activities (center time, circle time, and TV time). Conclusions: Physical activity levels varied between indoor and outdoor class activities. Policy and program-related efforts to increase physical activity in preschoolers should consider these patterns to leverage opportunities to optimize physical activity within early care and education centers.

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Dean A. Zoerink

The purpose of this exploratory study was to inquire about the childhood and adolescent social and recreational experiences of adult males having congenital orthopedic disabilities, those having acquired orthopedic disabilities, and those who were able-bodied. An interview method using a prepared questionnaire was employed to collect data from 173 men, of whom 53 had congenital disabilities, 60 had acquired disabilities, and 60 were able-bodied. They ranged in age from 20 to 40 years. The analyses, using the chi-square statistic at p = .001, revealed that men with congenital disabilities differed from each of the other two groups with respect to memories of childhood social and recreational opportunities. They recalled having had more or about the same number of childhood opportunities to play with friends, be involved in active games and in outdoor activities, and play at friends’ homes. Subjects with congenital disabilities, in contrast to the others, also recalled as adolescents having had more or about the same number of opportunities to participate in active games and go to friends’ homes.

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Russell R. Pate, Marsha Dowda, William H. Brown, Jonathan Mitchell and Cheryl Addy


It is known that children are more physically active outdoors than indoors. However, few previous studies have observed the time course for physical activity as young children transition from indoor to outdoor activities.


Participants were 3- to 5-year-old children enrolled in the Children’s Activity and Movement in Preschool Study (CHAMPS). Trained observers used the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version (OSRAC-P) to record children’s physical activity levels over 20 minutes in outdoor settings. The 20-minute outdoor observational period began immediately following the transition from indoors to outdoors.


Children’s activity levels were moderately high at the time of transition and declined over the 20-minute observation period. Different patterns, however, were observed for boys and girls. Overall, boys were more active than girls. Boys’ activity levels declined in a linear fashion over the 20-minute period, while girls’ activity levels increased slightly, decreased, and then increased slightly again.


These data indicate that physical activity levels decline with increased duration of outdoor play. The frequency and duration of outdoor play should be investigated for the purpose of optimizing physical activity levels.

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M. Papiol, M. Serra-Prat, J. Vico, N. Jerez, N. Salvador, M. Garcia, M. Camps, X. Alpiste and J. López


To determine the prevalence of five physical frailty phenotype components and to assess the relationship between them and other clinical factors.


A population-based cross-sectional study was performed. Subjects 75 years and older were randomly selected from primary care databases (with sampling stratified by gender). Physical frailty phenotypes were assessed using Fried’s criteria. Sociodemographic data, comorbidities, nutritional status, and functional capacity were assessed.


126 subjects were recruited (47% women). Prevalence rates were poor muscle strength: 50%; low physical activity: 29%; slow gait: 28%; exhaustion: 27%; and weight loss: 5%. Prefrailty and frailty prevalence rates were 35.7% and 29.4%, respectively. Poor muscle strength and low physical activity showed a close relationship and concordance (kappa = 0.92). Most frailty components were associated with outdoor activity, hours walked daily, and certain comorbidities.


Poor muscle strength was the most prevalent frailty component and was closely associated with physical activity, suggesting that training programs may revert or prevent the frailty process.

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James E. Curtis and Barry D. McPherson

This paper presents the results of a multivariate analysis of the relationship between region and the extent of participation in sport and physical activities, employing data from a large (N=20,000+) survey of a national sample of Canadian adults. The region-activity relationship is one that has been suggested also by some U.S. studies; that is, the farther west the respondent’s place of residence, the more likely he or she is to report high rates of physical activity. For the U.S. results, a convenient and common interpretation has been that the more favorable climate for outdoor activities in the westerly states leads to higher activity. This interpretation is not adequate for the Canadian findings, however, because of the harsher winter climate in the western provinces. Therefore, we explore some alternative theoretical interpretations of the Canadian results. These involve the effects of regional differences in three types of factors: sociodemographic composition, socioeconomic profiles, and opportunity structures. Because these factors are shown in our analyses to have only small effects upon the region-activity relationship, we also include some proposals for still further avenues of analysis and interpretation of the regional differences.

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Nicole E. Nicksic, Meliha Salahuddin, Nancy F. Butte and Deanna M. Hoelscher

weight control. 2 However, most children in the United States do not participate in enough PA. 3 Children spending time outdoors has been shown to increase their activity levels. 4 , 5 Unstructured outdoor activity can increase overall PA levels as well as cognitive functioning, social interaction, and

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A. Stefanie Mikolaizak, Jochen Klenk, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Michael D. Denkinger, Kilian Rapp and for the ActiFE Study Group

environment is described as outdoor mobility ( Webber, Porter, & Menec, 2010 ). Outdoor activities are linked to increased PA levels ( Portegijs, Tsai, Rantanen, & Rantakokko, 2015 ; Tsai et al., 2016 ). Expansion of daily life space, defined as the area through which a person moves in daily life, has been

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Russell Field

of arenas to connect changes in style and form to the shifting economics of modern indoor ice sports. Shubert makes a compelling case that not only did function and the celebration of spectacle come to determine architectural form, but that the containing of what was originally an outdoor activity

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Berit Steenbock, Marvin N. Wright, Norman Wirsik and Mirko Brandes

), performance of up to nine in- and outdoor activities, changing rooms within the kindergarten, and dressing and undressing for outdoor activities (Table  1 ). We measured RMR during 10 min of supine rest in a quiet, dimly lit room. The child lay on a mattress and was provided with a blanket. A short learning

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Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown

activity is associated with lower mortality in U.S. adults. For example, Inoue, Shono, and Matsumoto ( 2006 ) examined mortality risk based on the absence of outdoor activities in a sample of older adults living at home in their communities. They found a predictive 5-year mortality among participants that