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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

To perform optimally, athletes in various sports are required to continuously make decisions about how and when to invest their limited energy resources over time. 1 This goal-directed regulation of the exercise intensity over an exercise bout is known as “pacing.” 2 Many studies have suggested

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien

Pace bowling is an integral and exciting component of the international game of cricket. Pace bowlers form the majority of the “bowling attack” against opposition batters. The International Cricket Council ranks and scores bowlers in each match format (ie, Twenty20, One-Day International, Test

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Stein G.P. Menting, Marco J. Konings, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser and Florentina J. Hettinga

The distribution of energy over a race (ie, pacing) has proven to be a decisive factor in athlete performance in both time trials 1 , 2 and head-to-head competitions. 3 – 5 Several modeling and experimental studies have found that there is a multitude of factors that influence the pacing process

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Brian Hanley, Trent Stellingwerff and Florentina J. Hettinga

-distance runners. It was recently found that Olympic and World Championship middle-distance finalists were racers, rather than pacers, 3 in that, regardless of time, finalists approached the heats and semifinals with a strategy of winning, and might not have optimized energy conservation. Accordingly, a novel

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Luca Filipas, Emiliano Nerli Ballati, Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre and Maria Francesca Piacentini

The pacing strategies in athletic competitions have been largely investigated, both from an energetic and tactical point of view. 1 , 2 During 800-m track running events, the most common pacing strategies adopted are positive, with a fast start and a gradual decrease in speed, whereas for the

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Timothy Martinson, Stephen A. Butterfield, Craig A. Mason, Shihfen Tu, Robert A. Lehnhard and Christopher J. Nightingale

application of treatment plans can improve the overall health of at-risk students. There are 2 primary measurements used within the FITNESSGRAM system to assess cardiovascular endurance: the 1-mile run and the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER). The PACER allows participants to

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Theo Ouvrard, Alain Groslambert and Frederic Grappe

, cyclists must sustain a mean PO ranging from 350 to 450 W for up to 60 minutes. 2 , 5 , 6 It is now well known that maintaining a high PO over a prolonged period of time involves a good regulation of exercise intensity throughout the event, generally called pacing strategy. 7 , 8 Results of the literature

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Alice M. Wallett, Amy L. Woods, Nathan Versey, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert and Kevin G. Thompson

In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the pacing strategies of 4000-m competitive track cycling events and laboratory-based cycling trials. 1 – 5 Therefore, a 4000-m time trial (TT), although not a proxy for other TT distances, provides a well-researched test with which to examine

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Wouter Schallig, Tim Veneman, Dionne A. Noordhof, José A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, John P. Porcari, Jos J. de Koning and Carl Foster

The distribution of available energy resources (ie, pacing) is critical both in clinical settings and in achieving optimal athletic performance. 1 – 5 Different strategies can be chosen to distribute anaerobic and aerobic energetic resources during a task, which results in different power

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Cyril Granier, Chris R. Abbiss, Anaël Aubry, Yvon Vauchez, Sylvain Dorel, Christophe Hausswirth and Yann Le Meur

these previous results reported in the literature. In addition, it may be suspected that the performance level and the physiological profile of XCO-MTB cyclists have evolved over the last 15 years, which may in turn have influenced the competition demands. Studies have characterized the pacing adopted