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Barbara Resnick, Marcia G. Ory, Kerrie Hora, Michael E. Rogers, Phillip Page, Jane N. Bolin, Roseann M. Lyle, Cody Sipe, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko and Terry L. Bazzarre

The Exercise Assessment and Screening for You (EASY) is a tool developed to help older individuals, their health care providers, and exercise professionals identify different types of exercise and physical activity regimens that can be tailored to meet the existing health conditions, illnesses, or disabilities of older adults. The EASY tool includes 6 screening questions that were developed based on an expert roundtable and follow-up panel activities. The philosophy behind the EASY is that screening should be a dynamic process in which participants learn to appreciate the importance of engaging in regular exercise, attending to health changes, recognizing a full range of signs and symptoms that might indicate potentially harmful events, and becoming familiar with simple safety tips for initiating and progressively increasing physical activity patterns. Representing a paradigm shift from traditional screening approaches that focus on potential risks of exercising, this tool emphasizes the benefits of exercise and physical activity for all individuals.

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Andrew P. Winterstein and Tim McGuine

Column-editor : Patrick Sexton

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Luke M. Ross, Johna K. Register-Mihalik, Jason P. Mihalik, Karen L. McCulloch, William E. Prentice, Edgar W. Shields and Kevin M. Guskiewicz

Context:

Recent evidence has revealed deficiencies in the ability to divide attention after concussion.

Objective:

To examine the effects of a single vs a dual task on cognition and balance in healthy subjects and to examine reliability of 2 dual-task paradigms while examining the overall feasibility of the tasks.

Design:

Pretest–posttest experimental design.

Setting:

Sports medicine research laboratory.

Patients:

30 healthy, recreationally active college students.

Intervention:

Subjects performed balance and cognitive tasks under the single- and dual-task conditions during 2 test sessions 14 d apart.

Main Outcome Measures:

The procedural reaction-time (PRT) test of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (eyes-closed tasks) and an adapted Procedural Auditory Task (PAT; eyes-open tasks) were used to assess cognition. The NeuroCom Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) were used to assess balance performance. Five 2-way, within-subject ANOVAs and a paired-samples t test were used to analyze the data. ICCs were used to assess reliability across 2 test sessions.

Results:

On the SOT, performance significantly improved between test sessions (F 1,29 = 35.695, P < .001) and from the single to the dual task (F 1,29 = 9.604, P = .004). On the PRT, performance significantly improved between test sessions (F 1,29 = 57.252, P < .001) and from the single to the dual task (F 1,29 = 7.673, P = .010). No differences were seen on the BESS and the PAT. Reliability across test sessions ranged from moderate to poor for outcome measure.

Conclusions:

The BESS appears to be a more reliable and functional tool in dual-task conditions as a result of its increased reliability and clinical applicability. In addition, the BESS is more readily available to clinicians than the SOT.

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Maria K. Talarico, Robert C. Lynall, Timothy C. Mauntel, Erin B. Wasserman, Darin A. Padua and Jason P. Mihalik

squat speed slowed. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine if these relationships changed when a single-leg squat was completed under a dual-task paradigm compared with a single-task paradigm. We hypothesized that CoP range and sway area would increase, and sway speed would decrease to a

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Stephen J. Virgilio

The purpose of this article is twofold: to discuss some current problems with curriculum design in physical education, and to offer some suggestions for model-based attempts to assist the process of implementing new curriculums. The process of curriculum implementation can be broken into two phases, the preoperational stage and the operational stage. Several issues within each of the two stages are discussed, for curriculum changes in general and specifically for physical education. The key elements in curriculum implementation are: support (material and human), change strategies, communication channels, staff development, and instructional planning. Each element has its own role to play in the process, and the lack of any single element will severely hinder the efficacy of the changes desired. The final section of the article presents a model of the curriculum change process as outlined in the text.

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Michael F. Joseph, Kathryn Taft, Maria Moskwa and Craig R. Denegar

Study Design:

Systematic literature review.

Objective:

To assess the efficacy of deep friction massage (DFM) in the treatment of tendinopathy.

Context:

Anecdotal evidence supports the efficacy of DFM for the treatment of tendinopathy. An advanced understanding of the etiopathogenesis of tendinopathy and the resultant paradigm shift away from an active inflammatory model has taken place since the popularization of the DFM technique by Cyriax for the treatment of “tendinitis.” However, increasing mechanical load to the tendinopathic tissue, as well as reducing molecular cross-linking during the healing process via transverse massage, offers a plausible explanation for observed responses in light of the contemporary understanding of tendinopathy.

Evidence Acquisition:

The authors surveyed research articles in all languages by searching PubMed, Scopus, Pedro, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library using the terms deep friction massage, deep tissue massage, deep transverse massage, Cyriax, soft tissue mobilization, soft tissue mobilisation, cross friction massage, and transverse friction massage. They included 4 randomized comparison trials, 3 at the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and 1 supraspinatus outlet tendinopathy; 2 nonrandomized comparison trials, both receiving DFM at the ECRB; and 3 prospective noncomparison trials—supraspinatus, ECRB, and Achilles tendons. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were assessed based on PEDro and Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine rating scales.

Results:

Nine studies met the inclusion criteria.

Evidence Synthesis:

The heterogeneity of dependent measures did not allow for meta-analysis.

Conclusion:

The varied locations, study designs, etiopathogenesis, and outcome tools used to examine the efficacy of DFM make a unified conclusion tenuous. There is some evidence of benefit at the elbow in combination with a Mills manipulation, as well as for supraspinatus tendinopathy in the presence of outlet impingement and along with joint mobilization. The examination of DFM as a single modality of treatment in comparison with other methods and control has not been undertaken, so its isolated efficacy has not been established. Excellent anecdotal evidence remains along with a rationale for its use that fits the current understanding of tendinopathy.

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Gonzalo Varas-Diaz, Savitha Subramaniam, Larissa Delgado, Shane A. Phillips and Tanvi Bhatt

exergaming-based dance protocol independently without a fall. Conclusions Our results support the effectiveness of an exergaming-based dance training paradigm on improving HRV and cardiovascular fitness in older adults. Taken together, our results suggest that exergaming-based dance may be a potential

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Dan Campbell

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Anthony King

There has been a convergence in the study of football hooliganism in the 1990s between the approaches of Clifford Stott and Steve Reicher, and Anthony King, whose work emphasizes the interactional rather than predispositional element to football violence. Instead of looking only to the dispositional factors within the members of the crowd, which past research has emphasized, both Stott and Reicher and King highlight the way in which violent outcomes are the results of mutual interactions between the crowd and other agencies, such as police. Consequently, crowd violence cannot be read off as the automatic result of premeditated intention but should be seen as a complex and potentially contingent occurrence, where prior dispositions inform interactions but do not determine them.

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Hal A. Lawson and R. Scott Kretchmar

Debates-as-battles have characterized the histories of physical education and kinesiology. This colorful part of the field’s history was characterized by leaders’ narrow, rigid views, and it paved the way for divisiveness, excessive specialization, and fragmentation. Today’s challenge is to seek common purpose via stewardship-oriented dialogue, and it requires a return to first order questions regarding purposes, ethics, values, moral imperatives, and social responsibilities. These questions are especially timely insofar as kinesiology risks running on a kind of automatic pilot, seemingly driven by faculty self-interests and buffered from consequential changes in university environments and societal contexts. A revisionist history of kinesiology’s origins and development suggests that it can be refashioned as a helping discipline, one that combines rigor, relevance, and altruism. It gives rise to generative questions regarding what a 21st century discipline prioritizes and does, and it opens opportunity pathways for crossing boundaries and bridging divides. Three sets of conclusions illuminate unrealized possibilities for a vibrant, holistic kinesiology—a renewed discipline that is fit for purpose in 21st century contexts.