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Rainer Martens

The dissatisfaction with the existing scientific paradigm of social psychology, and its adoption in sport psychology, is discussed. Although many metapsychological issues are raised, attention focuses on the inadequacies of laboratory experimental research. As a partial solution in the development of a new paradigm, it is suggested that sport psychologists trade their smocks for “jocks,” turning their efforts to multivariate, long-term field research.

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Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J. Smith and Nazanin Derakshan

executive functions and efficiency in sports. Ducrocq, Wilson, Vine, and Derakshan ( 2016 ) employed a training paradigm specifically designed to target the inhibition function of WM with the aim of protecting tennis players from the negative impact of competitive anxiety via improved inhibition. Compared

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Melanie Vetter, Helen O’Connor, Nicholas O’Dwyer and Rhonda Orr

understanding, and teachers provide the learning environment, opportunities, and interactions. 12 Another emerging paradigm, “physically active learning,” may be described as combining learning with physical activity, where learning happens “on the move.” Research on the simultaneous combination of physical

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Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald and Volker Nolte

athletes. A paradigmatic framework was consistent with both interpretivism and constructivism. Under this paradigm, a person’s reality is not generalizable to another person’s reality ( Ponterotto, 2005 ), but it is intended to help other older adults reflect on solutions to their own fall-risk experience

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Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke and James Hardy

visuomotor learning paradigm called the 2 × 10 task. Acquisition was considered explicit because participants learned the correct sequence by trial and error ( Abrahamse et al., 2013 ). This promotes hypothesis testing behavior that leads performers to accumulate a bank of explicit and verbalizable rules to

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Gregory A. Dale

Qualitative research in sport psychology is slowly becoming more of an accepted form of inquiry, and most of this research is conducted using various interview methods. In this paper, information is provided on a paradigm that has been given little consideration in sport psychology literature. This paradigm is termed existential phenomenology, and within this paradigm a chief mode of inquiry is the phenomenological interview. With its open-ended format and similarities to the athlete-sport psychology consultant interaction in a performance enhancement intervention, it is a method that appears to offer valuable information about the participant’s experience that might otherwise go unnoticied. The basic views of existential phenomenology, including its philosophical foundations as well as instructions for conducting a phenomenological interview study, are provided. Specific discussion of the potential significance of this type of research for the field of sport psychology is offered.

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Michael L. Naraine

-exchange paradigm, especially the notion of blockchain and decentralized networks. While Nakamoto’s ( 2008 ) advancement of BTC as a cryptocurrency is certainly novel, the underlying support mechanism known as blockchain is incredibly nuanced and has led to other decentralized movements including ride

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Andrew Friesen and Terry Orlick

Incorporating the holistic development of the athlete into an applied sport psychology intervention has been addressed in the literature (e.g., Bond, 2002; Ravizza, 2002). How sport psychology consultants actually practice holistic sport psychology remains unclear. The purpose of this research was to provide a clarification as to what holistic sport psychology is and examine the beliefs, values, theoretical paradigms, and models of practice of holistic sport psychology consultants’ professional philosophies (Poczwardowski, Sherman, & Ravizza, 2004). Qualitative interviews with five purposefully selected holistic sport psychology consultants were conducted. In general, holistic consulting can be interpreted to mean: (a) managing the psychological effects to the athlete’s performance from nonsport domains; (b) developing the core individual beyond their athletic persona; and (c) recognizing the dynamic relationship between an athlete’s thoughts, feelings, physiology, and behavior. The corresponding beliefs, values, theoretical paradigms, and models of practice of holistic consultants were also presented.

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Robin S. Vealey

In a previous review of the literature between 1950 and 1973, sport personology—the study of personality theory and research in sport—was examined with regard to paradigmatic and methodological issues (Martens, 1975). This study follows up and extends that article by examining trends and issues that have developed in sport personology since that time. A content analysis of the sport personality research published in selected journals and proceedings between 1974 and 1987 was made with regard to paradigm, methodological considerations, and objectives. The results indicated that sport personology has shifted paradigmatically from the trait paradigm to interactionism, but the cognitive interactional approach has overshadowed the trait-state interactional approach. Methodological trends included an emphasis on correlational methods and field research. With regard to research objectives, most studies focused on description and prediction with only a few studies focused on intervention.

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Robert E. Dustman, Rita Emmerson and Donald Shearer

Findings from three research paradigms that employed aerobic exercise as an independent variable were used to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise improves cognitive-neuropsychological functioning. The research paradigms were animal intervention studies, cross-sectional human studies, and human intervention studies. Results from studies of animals, usually rodents, provide consistent evidence that aerobic fitness is associated with improved neurobiological and behavioral functioning. Cross-sectional studies with humans indicate a strong positive association between physical activity level and cognitive-neuropsychological performance. However, results from these studies must be interpreted cautiously, as individuals who elect to exercise or not exercise may differ on other variables that could influence cognitive-neuropsychological performance. To date, human intervention studies have not consistently demonstrated cognitive-neuropsychological improvements following exercise training. To satisfactorily test the exercise/cognition hypothesis with humans, carefully controlled intervention studies that last longer than those previously employed are needed.