understanding, and teachers provide the learning environment, opportunities, and interactions. 12 Another emerging paradigm, “physically active learning,” may be described as combining learning with physical activity, where learning happens “on the move.” Research on the simultaneous combination of physical
Melanie Vetter, Helen O’Connor, Nicholas O’Dwyer and Rhonda Orr
Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald and Volker Nolte
athletes. A paradigmatic framework was consistent with both interpretivism and constructivism. Under this paradigm, a person’s reality is not generalizable to another person’s reality ( Ponterotto, 2005 ), but it is intended to help other older adults reflect on solutions to their own fall-risk experience
Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke and James Hardy
visuomotor learning paradigm called the 2 × 10 task. Acquisition was considered explicit because participants learned the correct sequence by trial and error ( Abrahamse et al., 2013 ). This promotes hypothesis testing behavior that leads performers to accumulate a bank of explicit and verbalizable rules to
Robert E. Dustman, Rita Emmerson and Donald Shearer
Findings from three research paradigms that employed aerobic exercise as an independent variable were used to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise improves cognitive-neuropsychological functioning. The research paradigms were animal intervention studies, cross-sectional human studies, and human intervention studies. Results from studies of animals, usually rodents, provide consistent evidence that aerobic fitness is associated with improved neurobiological and behavioral functioning. Cross-sectional studies with humans indicate a strong positive association between physical activity level and cognitive-neuropsychological performance. However, results from these studies must be interpreted cautiously, as individuals who elect to exercise or not exercise may differ on other variables that could influence cognitive-neuropsychological performance. To date, human intervention studies have not consistently demonstrated cognitive-neuropsychological improvements following exercise training. To satisfactorily test the exercise/cognition hypothesis with humans, carefully controlled intervention studies that last longer than those previously employed are needed.
Robin S. Vealey
In a previous review of the literature between 1950 and 1973, sport personology—the study of personality theory and research in sport—was examined with regard to paradigmatic and methodological issues (Martens, 1975). This study follows up and extends that article by examining trends and issues that have developed in sport personology since that time. A content analysis of the sport personality research published in selected journals and proceedings between 1974 and 1987 was made with regard to paradigm, methodological considerations, and objectives. The results indicated that sport personology has shifted paradigmatically from the trait paradigm to interactionism, but the cognitive interactional approach has overshadowed the trait-state interactional approach. Methodological trends included an emphasis on correlational methods and field research. With regard to research objectives, most studies focused on description and prediction with only a few studies focused on intervention.
Richard J. Jagacinski, Karl M. Newel1 and Paul D. Isaac
A signal detection paradigm was used to measure the sensitivity of basketball players in discriminating successful from unsuccessful shots. College-level basketball players predicted a shot's outcome either before release of the ball, immediately after release, or after seeing the ball travel halfway to the basket. In none of these conditions did active shooters exhibit greater sensitivity than passive observers. Some evidence was found for sequential dependencies in shooting performance, though not to the degree that one might expect from basketball lore.
A. Craig Fisher
An individual differences approach to multidimensional scaling is outlined from the perspective of the modern interactional paradigm. The applicability of the individual differences model to anxiety research in sport settings is demonstrated. The model offers the advantage that both individual athlete data and group athlete data are revealed in the analysis simultaneously, without either analysis restricting the other. Representations of the structure in sport anxiety data matrices are unlocked by the individual differences model. Additional applications of the model to sport psychology research topics are offered.
Jerry R. Thomas, Karen E. French and Charlotte A. Humphries
In this paper we propose that research in motor behavior has failed to meet the obligation of studying how children learn important sport skills. In particular, understanding the specific sport knowledge base is essential to studying skilled sport behavior. To support this view we review the research in the cognitive area relative to the development of expertise. We then attempt to justify why a similar approach is useful for motor behavior researchers and why they should undertake the study of sport skill acquisition. Finally, we offer a paradigm within which sport skill research might take place.
George T. Baker III and George R. Martin
Aging is characterized by numerous physical, physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes. The rates at which aging processes occur are highly variable among individuals and are thought to be governed by both environmental and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors such as exercise, dietary, and smoking habits have been demonstrated to alter many of the changes usually associated with human aging. However, at present caloric restriction is the only experimental paradigm that has consistently been demonstrated in animal models to extend not only physiological vigor but also life span. The positive effects of exercise on physiological fitness and the reduction in the risks of certain diseases have been well documented. However, its effects on life span are not as clear. This article explores some of the basic mechanisms thought to be involved causally in the processes of aging, and outlines current and potential interventive strategies to retard or ameliorate the rates of decline in physiological function with advancing age.
Kathye E. Light and Waneen W. Spirduso
Unlike stimulus–response compatibility, which has been explored for aging effects, the motor behavior issue of response–response (R–R) compatibility has not been addressed in the gerontological literature. R–R compatibility refers to the ease with which two responses can be prepared together either simultaneously or as choice alternatives. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and elderly adult female subjects were tested in a two-choice reaction-time (RT) paradigm involving four types of finger movements paired in every possible choice combination, creating different levels of R–R compatibility. Significant age differences increased as R–R compatibility decreased. The practical significance of this study is to establish R–R compatibility as an important factor influencing task difficulty to which older adults are particularly sensitive and to encourage recognition of this factor when prescribing progressive motor-skill training in elderly clients.